Monthly Archives: February 2016

Political Experiments of the 1920s

TERMS 

Normalcy- normalcy is a term which describes the state of life before 1914. Many politicians wanted to bring back a sense of normalcy back to their countries after WW1 but what had been “normal” in economic and social life before 1914 could not be reestablished.

Great Depression- The Great Depression was a  a worldwide economic downturn that began with the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange in 1929. During the Great Depression unemployment rates soared and many people starved.

Weimar Republic- A democratic German republic that came to power in 1918 embodying the hopes of German liberals. It lasted from the end of WW1 and Hitler’s coming to power in 1933.

Sinn Fein- is an Irish republican political party. In 1922 Sinn Fein helped Ireland achieve its independence.

Popular Front- the Popular Front was a government of all left wing parties that took power in France in 1936 to enact social and economic reforms.

War Communism- War Communism refers to a policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution to seize the banks, heavy industry, railroads, and farms.

New Economic Policy- The New Economic Policy was a program introduced by Lenin in 1921 which permitted private economic enterprises except in banking, heavy industry, transportation, and international commerce. The NEP was designed to please the peasants whom Lenin believed held the key to a successful revolution. The NEP helped free enterprise and helped establish secure food supply to cities.

The Third International/Comintern

Collectivization- Collectivization refers to a policy during the Soviet Union. The goal of collectivization was to consolidate the individual land and labour in to collective farms for the good of the state.

Great Purges- The Great Purges in the Soviet Union was the arrest ad expulsion of thousands of Russians and Ukrainians during 1934-1940. Began as a result of the assassination of Sergei Kirov in December of 1934.

Fascism- Fascism is a system of extreme right wing dictatorial government. A key part of fascism is extreme nationalism. Both Italy and Germany were fascist states during the 1930s until the end of WWII.

Benito Mussolini- Benito Mussolini (1922-1945) was the leader of the National Fascist Party of Italy from 1922 to 1945. He ruled constitutionally until 1925 when he dropped the democratic government and set up a legal dictatorship.

Black Shirt March- The Black Shirt March was a march which Italian fascist Benito Mussolini and the National Fascist Party came to power in Italy in 1922.

Lateran Accord, 1929- was an agreement between Benito Mussolini and the Roman Catholic Church. In February of 1929 the Roman Catholic Church and Benito Mussolini made peace with each other. Ever since the armies of the Italian unification had seized papal lands in the 1860s, the church had a contentious relationship with the state.

The Ruhr Invasion- The Ruhr Invasion was the French invasion of the German territory of the Ruhr in order to secure the payment of WW1 reparations. The German response of passive economic resistance produced cataclysmic inflation.

Nazis/SA- Nazis or National Socialists are followers of the German Nazi Party and State.  The SA or Sturmabteilung were members of the Nazi party who helped secure the power of the National Socialists in Germany. They would disrupt meetings of opposing parties and would intimidate non-supporters.

Article 48- Article 48 was a law written in the constitution of the Weimar Republic which under certain circumstances the president could rule by decree. The constitution thus permitted the possibility of presidential dictatorship.

Adolf Hitler – Mein KampfMein Kampf (My Struggle) is an autobiographical manifesto published by Adolf Hitler in 1926. It was a strategy dictated by Adolf Hitler during his period of imprisonment in 1923, outlining his political views.

Storm Troopers – Ernest Röhm- Ernst Röhm (1887-1934) was a German officer who was a cofounder of the Sturmabteilung or SA. He was a member of the Nazi party but was executed on Adolf Hitler and Heinrich Himmler’s orders as a potential rival.

Gustave Stressemann Gustave Stressemann (1878-1929) was a German politician and Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic from 1923-1929.

 

The Dawes Plan- the Dawes Plan was an attempt in 1924 to solve the war reparations problem which encompassed international politics following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles. The plan was for the Allies to pay 2.6 billion dollars of War Debt to the United States. The United States would give Germany 2.5 Billion dollars in loans in which Germany would pay 2.0 Billion to the Allies.

Locarno Agreements- the Locarno Agreements were an attempt to normalize relations with Germany after WWI.

The Young Plan- the Young Plan was a a replacement of the Dawes Plan that ran out in 1929. The Young Plan lowered the cost of reparation payments, put a term on how long they must be made, and removed Germany entirely from outside supervision and control.

Kristallnacht- Kristallnacht was increased persecution of German Jews in 1938. In November of 1938, under orders from the Nazi Party, thousands of Jewish stores and synagogues were burned or destroyed. The Kristallnacht meaning “crystal night” because of the broken glass that littered German streets after the looting and destruction of Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues.

Nazi Economic Policy- Nazi economic policies supported private property and private capitalism but subordinated all significant economic enterprise and decisions about prices and investment.

Thomas Masaryk- Thomas Masaryk (1850-1937) was a Czechoslovak politician who was a devout supporter of Czechoslovakian independence. After WWI he became the founder and first President of Czechoslovakia.

Bela Kun- Bela Kun (1886-1938) was a Hungarian revolutionary who led the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.

Admiral Miklos Horthy- Miklos Horthy (1868-1957) was a Hungarian Admiral who served as regent of the Kingdom of Hungary between WWI and WWII. Worthy led a conservative nationalist government.

QUESTIONSBulletin points or outline notes.

1. What caused the Great Depression? Why was it more severe and why did it last longer than previous economic downturns? Could it have been avoided?

Causes of Great Depression

*Stock Market Crash of 1929

*Bank Failures

*Margin Buying

*Decline in consumer demand

*American Economic Policy with Europe

*Poor agricultural conditions

 

The economic depression of 1929 was more severe and lasted much longer than previous economic downturns because it it affected a greater percentage of the of the population than any other economic downturn had before. The Great depression persisted throughout the 1930s. The Great Depression may have been avoided, but also at this time the concept of Margin buying and the large percentage of the population which was buying shares in the stock market both helped lead to the Great depression.

2. How did Stalin achieve supreme power in the Soviet Union? Why did he decide that Russia had to industrialize rapidly? Why did this require the collectivization of agriculture? Was the policy a success? How did it affect the Russian people? Why did Stalin carry out the purges?

Stalin came fom a poor family and had not, unlike previous Bolshevik leaders, sent time in western Europe. He was much less intellectual and he was much more brutal. Stalin was no a brilliant writer or an effective public speaker, but he was a master of the crucial details of party structure. He used his power over admission to the party and promotion to select those he trusted. Stalin collectivized farms and agriculture in Russia so that the country could have a reliable source of food to fuel it’s industrial economy. The policy of collectivization was a success for cities in Russia because it gave them a stable source of food but as a result many people in rural areas died from starvation. Farmers who had once owned the land, now had to give a majority of their crop production to the state. As a result of the mass purges and collectivization in Russia, many Russian citizens died. Stalin carried out the mass purges because he was paranoid. Anyone in power or who had an education, could be arrested and sent to Siberia if Stalin or the Checka suspected them of being an enemy of the state. Stalin employed scare tactics to seize power in Russia.

3. Why was Italy dissatisfied and unstable after WWI? How did Mussolini achieve power? What were the characteristics of the Fascist state?

Post WWI Italian politics were in shambles. The Italian Parliament had virtually ceased to function during the war, and many Italians were disillusioned with their leaders, whom they believed had failed to win Italy its fair share and the Treaty of Versailles. Between 1919 and 1921, Italy experienced considerable internal turmoil. There were industrial strikes, workers occupied factories, peasants seized uncultivated land from large estates, and the national parliament could not do much for the state of the country. The first of Mussolini’s supporters were WWI Italian veterans many of whom believed the Paris peace conference had cheated Italy of territory it rightfully deserved. Initially Mussolini was attracted to socialism, but soon his political views shifted. Mussolini was an opportunist and he changed his ideas and principle to suit every new occasion. On November 23, 1922 King Victor Emmanuel III and Parliament commissioned him to restore order and granted Mussolini dictatorial authority for one year. In Fascist Italy, Fascists ran the police force, and fascist terrorist groups became a government militia. Many Italians tolerated and even admired Mussolini, for they believed he had saved them from Bolshevism. Anyone who dared to oppose Mussolini were exiled or killed.

 

4. Why did the Weimar Republic collapse in Germany? How did Hitler come to power? Which groups in Germany supported Hitler and why were they pro-Nazi? How did he consolidate his power? Why was anti-Semitism central to Nazi policy?

The Weimar Republic, which took its name from the city in which its constitution was written in August of 1919, embodied the hopes of German liberals. The Weimar Republic was ruled by the Social democrats, a party which came to power after the abdication of Kaiser William II. The Weimar Republic was a young democracy which had it’s flaws. In the constitution of the Weimar Republic, there was a law that gave the chancellor dictatorial leadership in times that threatened the nation. Hitler came to power by luck and by exploiting the one law in the constitution that allowed the chancellor to rule by dictatorship in times that threatened the state. Hitler came to power when Germany was at its weakest. There was mass inflation and political turmoil. Hitler wanted to get rid of democracy because it was not working in Germany. In the early 1930s, Germany had 37 different political parties. With the help of the Sturmabteilung (SA), and other political figures, Hitler eventually came to power. Anti-Semitism was central to Nazi policy because Hitler had a grand vision of an aryan race. He thought that if he could genetically select certain traits, Germany as a whole would benefit.

5. What was fascism? How and why did the fascists obtain power in Italy? To whom did they appeal? What were the differences between the fascist dictatorship of Mussolini and the communist dictatorship of Stalin? What was the status of women under these regimes?

Fascism is extreme nationalism combined with some facets socialism. The Fascists obtained power in Italy by intimidating other political groups. They formed local squads of terrorists who disrupted Socialist Party meetings, beat up socialist leaders, and intimidating socialist supporters. By early 1922, intimidation and won fascist control of local governments across most of northern Italy, and in 1921, Italian voters sent Mussolini and thirty-four of his followers to the national Chamber of Deputies. In Russia, Stalin was a paranoid leader who exiled or executed anyone suspected of plotting against him. Stalin is known for killing millions of his own countrymen in the mass purges. Mussolini also employed intimidation to maintain his power but not the the same extent of killing millions of his own people. Mussolini did kill political prisoners but not to the same extent. In Russia, women had equal roles to that of men. Women were seen as equal and they were put into Russian high command as well. Women were also seen as child bearers who contributed to the good of the state by having many children. In Italy the role of women changed from being a tool of procreation to managing the family economy both agriculturally and industrially. During WWII women’s roles were to raise children and work in factories while the men waged war.

While Mussolini was in power, abortion was banned. The Fascists established Mother’s day and made childbearing a honorable deed for the good of the state.

6. What characteristics did the authoritarian regimes in the Soviet Union, Italy, and Germany have in common? What role did terror play in each?

All of the authoritarian regimes in the Soviet Union, Italy, and Germany believed that if united under nationalism and a strong central government they could be successful states. They all spread propaganda through their country to help support the cause of the state. All of these powers also gave more rights to women. They made childbearing an honorable deed for the good of the state. All of the countries spread nationalism as a tool to get support for the country. These nations also industrialized rapidly before WWII.  In all of the nations, terror played a large role in the rise to power of their authoritative leaders. Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini all killed or exiled their competitors. They used terror as a tool to intimidate their countrymen and keep power over them.

7. Why did liberal democracy fail in the successor states of Eastern Europe?

Democracy failed in the successor states of Eastern Europe because they were weaker countries with young, untested democracies and inexperienced politicians. Parliamentary governments failed in most of the easter European states set up after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. These young successor states laced the economic base and the history of a democracy to be successful. The new states were no financially independent. The Eastern European states were poor, rural, and unindustrialized. Each of the Eastern European states had at least one minority ethnic groups living within their new arbitrary borders. The combination of an economic depression, miscalculated borders, and weak democracy led to the failure of Eastern European states after WWI.

Sources 

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

this study guide is better than the last few. but like I said pls don’t just copy this at least type it out!

Russian Revolution “Русская революция”

TERMS

Dual Alliance 1879 Germany & Austria- the dual alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria. The agreement was that both nations agreed to help one another in case of an attack by Russia.

Triple Alliance  1882 Italy, Germany, Austria- the Triple Alliance of 1882 lasted until WWI in 1914. It was a military alliance among Germany, Austria, and Italy.

Kaiser William II- Kaiser William II (1859-1941) was the ruler of Germany from 1888 to 1918.

Franco-Russian Alliance – 1890- military alliance between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire which lasted from 1892 to 1917.

Kruger Telegram- the Kruger telegram was a message sent by Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II to the president of the Transvaal Republic in 1896.

Entente Cordial- The Entente Cordial was a series of agreements which aligned Britain and France together before WWI

First Moroccan Crisis 1905- The First Moroccan Crisis also known as the Tangier crisis was an international crisis between 1905 and 1906 over the status of the Morocco.

Russo-British Alliance- 1907- The Russo British alliance was a military alliance between Russia and Britain in 1907.

Bosnian Crisis 1908- the Bosnian crisis was when Austria announced the annexations of Bosnia and Herzegovina territories in 1908.

Second Moroccan Crisis 1911- the Second Moroccan Crisis 1911 was internationall tension sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of the Moroccan 1911.

Balkan Wars- the Balkan Wars were a series of conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula from 1912 to 1913.

June 28, 1914/Sarajevo- was the date Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo.

Blank Check- was a check with no numerical value written in. It describes the war reparations Germany must pay for after the war.

Schlieffen Plan- was a tactical plan to invade France.

Battle of Tannenberg- was an engagement between Russia and Germany in the early stages of the war. The battle resulted in a large destruction of the the Russian Army.

Central Powers- the Central Powers included but were not limited to Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire.

Allies- the Allies Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States.

Trench Warfare- Trench Warfare was a new type of warfare fought in the trenches.

Lusitania- the Lusitania was a ship that the Germans sank with their submarine. This led to one of the factors that got the United States involved in WWI.

Provisional Government- the Provision Government was a government that was ruled by the Duma in 1917.

October Revolution- October was a revolution in Russia that occurred in 1917.

White Russians- White Russians were the Russians who supported the rule of the king and did not support the Revolution.

Fourteen Points- The Fourteen Points was a document drafted by Woodrow Willson to help deal with the situation in Europe after WWI

Versailles- The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty that ended WWI.

War Guilt Clause 231- also known as Article 231, sets the blame of WWI entirely on Germany.

Reparations- were the payments from Germany to the rest of Europe to help pay for the cost and damage from the war.

Economic Consequences of the Peace – J.M. Keynes- is a book published by J.M. Keynes which describes the economic consequences after WWI and the treaty of Versailles.

 

QUESTIONS  

1. What role in the world did Bismarck envisage for the new Germany after 1871? How successful was he in carrying out his vision? What was Bismarck’s attitude toward colonies?  Was he wise to tie Germany to Austria-Hungary?

Bismarck was successful in making Germany a united power in Europe. Bismarck did not want colonies he just wanted german speakers in his lands. He was wise to tie Germany to Austria Hungary.

2. Why and in what stages did Britain abandon its policy of “splendid isolation” at the turn of the century? Were the policies it pursued instead wise ones? Or should Britain have followed a different course altogether?

Britain abandoned its policy of isolation because it eventually had to deal with problems in Europe. The policies that Britain followed were wise. Britain followed a good course during the 1910s and 1920s.

3. How did developments in the Balkans lead to the outbreak of WWI? What was the role of Serbia? Of Austria? Of Russia?  What was the aim of German policy in July 1914? Did Germany want a general war?

In the Balkans nationalism helped instigate WWI. All of these nations wanted different goals for the good of their own states. Germany did not want a general war.

4. Why did Germany lose WWI? Could Germany have won, or was victory never a possibility? Assess the settlement of Versailles.  What were its benefits to Europe, and what were its drawbacks? Was the settlement too harsh or too conciliatory?  Could it have secured lasting peace in Europe?  How might it have been improved?

Germany lost WWI because it did not have good military tactics and it got the United States involved. The Treaty of Versailles was not good for Germany. The settlement did not take in account various factors in Europe. The Treaty had the potential of creating lasting peace, but as a result it directly started WWII.

5. Why was Lenin successful in establishing Bolshevik rule in Russia? What role did Trotsky play?  Was it wise policy for Lenin to take Russia out of the war?

Lenin was successful in establishing Bolshevik rule in Russia. Trotsky was a rival to Lenin. It was wise to take Russia out of the war because they were undergoing a revolution. Although they lost territory, it could be argued that they would have lost those territories anyway because the territories they lost were not technically Russian regions.

 

Sources 

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

Dang, those were some short essays… guess it means more work for you.

-X

Imperialism

TERMS 

Imperialism- Policy of expanding a nation’s power by seeking hegemony over alien peoples.

The Jewel in the Crown- India was “the jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, its most profitable and valuable possession.

Sepoy Rebellion 1857- the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 was a mutiny of Indian soldiers against the East India Company’s army on May 10, 1857. The rebellion was brutally suppressed. The British had a significant advantage because of their superior weaponry.

Protectorates-

Spheres of Influence- A sphere of Influence is an economic and politically controlled area of one nation.

J.A. Hobson- John Atkinson Hobson (1858-1940) was an English economist and writer. Hobson was known as a critic of imperialism.

‘civilizing mission’- The ‘civilizing mission’ was the belief that it was Europeans’ duty to civilize indigenous Africans. European confidence in their superiority made them energetic, self righteous, expansionists.

“Scramble for Africa”- The scramble for Africa was as a result of New Imperialism. Before 1880, European presence in Africa was largely the result of coastal exploration by early explorers who did not penetrate inland.  By 1914 however, the occupying powers included most large European countries.

Suez Canal- The Suez Canal was finished in 1869. It stimulated British interest in Africa because the canal shortened the distance by ship between Africa and India.

King Leopold II- King Leopold II (1835-1909) was the king of Belgium and is primarily remembered for founding the Congo Free State.

Great Trek/Boers- The Great Trek was a north eastward emigration of the Dutch Boers as a result of the British rule in South Africa.

Apartheid- was a system of racial segregation in South Africa.

The Boxer Rebellion- The Boxer Rebellion was an anti Imperialist movement in China from 1899-1901.

“Tools” of imperialism- European nations used many methods of expanding their spheres of influence during the age of Imperialism. Europe’s power was bassoon the progress it made during the second industrial revolution in science, technology, industry, agriculture, communications, and weaponry.  The earlier for of imperialism involved seizing land and resettling it with the conquerer;s people or controlling trade to exploit the resources of a dominated area. The New Imperialism employed this method and introduced new ones as well. A European nation often began by investing capital in a foreign region to develop its mines and agriculture, railroads, and harbors.

QUESTIONS  

1. How did European imperial interests shift geographically in the nineteenth century? How was free trade related to the expansion of European influence around the globe?

European imperial interests shifted geographically as a result of economic and political motives. European nations shifted away from colonialism towards imperialism because they saw the economic benefits associated with imperialism. A need for martkts and raw materials does not adequately explain the New Imperialism of the late 19th century. Some politicians hoped that imperialism would steer public interest from domestic problems. Some social reformers hoped to use colonies to relieve population pressures in Europe (Australia).

2. How was New Imperialism different from free-trade imperialism? Why was Britain the dominant world power until the late 19th century?

New Imperialism was different from free trade imperialism in many ways. Firstly free trade imperialism means that a country conquerer and rules over other reigns. Imperialism means creating an empire, and expanding onto the neighboring regions. Britain was the dominant power because of its large sphere of influence. Britain was able to achieve its large sphere of influence as a result of its large, powerful, and technologically advanced navy.

3. What were the Opium Wars?

The Opium Wars was a war fought between China and Britain over conflicting viewpoints over the sale of opium. Britain wanted access to China’s raw materials and in return would sell the Chinese opium. The Chinese government disapproved over this and thus created a war.

4. Describe British rule in India from 1857 to WWI? Why was India so important to Britain?

Britain wanted India because of its natural resources. India also provided Britain a central economic and military base for all relations in Asia. India was a huge economic investment. The British spent lots of money and time to conquer India. As a result the British controlled a large wealthy area of land with many natural resources.

There is supposed to be a chart here…..

5. Why did missionary efforts expand in the nineteenth century? Why was the relationship between Western missionaries and colonial officials so complicated? Why did Africans want to found their own churches? How has the spread of Christianity in the non-Western world affected the Christian churches?

Missionaries wanted to expand in the 19th century because they believed they had a duty to extend the benefits of their superior civilization to less technologically advanced people. Africans wanted to found their own churches because they felt discriminated by Europeans who lived in Africa. The spread of Christianity affected many other religions. The spread of Christianity in the non-Western world also helped Christian churches.

6. How did Westerners justify imperialism? What was the civilizing mission? What sciences were most associated with the New Imperialism? What role did racism play in the New Imperialism?

Westerners justified imperialism because they believed they had a duty to extend the benefits of their superior civilization to less technologically advanced people. The ‘civilizing mission’ was the belief that it was Europeans’ duty to civilize indigenous Africans. European confidence in their superiority made them energetic, self righteous, expansionists. Racism played a role in New Imperialism. It made some Caucasian Europeans feel superior to Africans.

 

 

 

yeah this is a really short study guide…. didn’t get a 20/20. You definitely need to add to it in order to get 20. Good Luck!

Late 19th Century Europe

TERMS

Second Industrial Revolution- the Second Industrial Revolution, began after 1850,

expanded production of steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil. The development of electrically powered machines had the greats impact of industry on daily life.

petite bourgeoisie- is a French term that describes the white collar social class. The petite bourgeoisie compromised of professions such as shopkeepers, small merchants, school teachers, and librarians. Many of these people had working class origins. All had middle class aspirations.

Napoleon III’s Paris- Napoleon III rebuilt and redesigned Paris. Napoleon III initiated the redesign of Paris and appointed Georges Haussmann from 1853 to 1870 to oversee the city’s reconstruction. Napoleon III created large boulevards and wide streets. This allowed for for quick deployment of troops, and also eliminated narrow streets that people might barricade. During the reconstruction of Paris, sewers were also added to reduce disease.

The Eiffel Tower- the Eiffel Tower was initially built as an entrance arch for the World’s Fair of 1889. It became a symbol of French industrial strength. Many people in Paris wanted to tear it down, but it was later repurposed as a radio tower.

Louis Pasteur- Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was a French chemist known for his discoveries in vaccination, fermentation, and pasteurization. His breakthroughs raised public awareness on sanitation and cleanliness.

Joseph Lister- Joseph Lister (1827-1912) was a British surgeon who pioneered in antiseptic surgery. By applying the methods of Louis Pasteur to surgery, Joseph Lister was able to make surgery much safer for patients.

Married Woman’s Property Act of 1882- The Married Woman’s Property Act of 1882 allowed wives in Britain to own property as individuals. European society was based on private property and wage earning, laws seriously disadvantaged women.

Eduard Manet – A Bar at the Folies Bergere- Eduard Manet (1832-1883) was a French

painter who is know for is impressionistic style. His paining, A Bar at the Folies Bergere is a paining of a woman who is a bartender. The painting shows the woman from two unique angles because there is a mirror behind her. This interesting choice to use a mirror by Manet gives the painting an extra layer.

Mary Wollstonecraft – The Vindication of the Right of Woman- In 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft wrote The Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Mary Wollstonecraft made a case for women’s rights based on the same arguments used for mens rights in the 18th century.

suffragettes- suffragettes was a demeaning name for members of the Women’s Social and Political Union. This group of women lobbied for votes and increased rights for women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Trade Unionism- is an organization of workers in the same field who come together to achieve common goals. Trade unionism flourished during the second half of the century as governments began to recognize the right of workers to organize. All the major industrial countries in Europe allowed Trade Unionism by the late 19th century.

Karl Marx & the First International- In 1864, a group of British and French trade unionists founded the First International. This group encompassed a vast array of radical political types.

Fabian Socialism- Britain’s most influential socialist organization was the Fabian Society. It took its name from the Roman general Fambius Maximus, who was famous for defending Rome from Hannibal in the Second Punic War. Fabian Socialism believed that collective ownership could could solve the problems of industry.

German Social Democratic Party- The German Social Democratic Party also called the SPD emerged in 1875 in response to the inequality of the German working class. The SPD remained a influential group throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The SPD started out as a small political group but then grew into one of Germany’s largest political parties.

Ferdinand Lasalle & Wilhelm Liebknecht- Ferdinand Lasalle (1825-1864) was an activist for labor reform who wanted to win a role for the working class in German politics. The SPD was formed in response to his work. Wilhelm Liebkecht (1826-1900) was a German social democrate who helped organize the SPD.

The Erfurt Program- was formulated in 1891 by the SPD. It’s goal was to create a socialist means of production. It also declared the imminent death of capitalism

Revisionism and Eduard Bernstein- Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) was a German

political theorist and a member of the SPD. Bernstein saw flaws in Marxist thinking and rejected significant parts of Marxist theory. German socialists condemned Bernstein’s views, but the SPD followed Bernstein’s views. Trade unions were prospering and did not want a revolution. The SPD grew in popularity by compromising with different views and soon became one of the most important political organizations in Germany.

Bolsheviks & Mensheviks- Bolsheviks, meaning majority in Russian, was Lenin’s Russian political party which favored elite professionals who would provide the working class with centralized leadership. The Mensheviks, meaning minority in Russian, wanted to create a party with large mass membership, like the SPD in Germany.

Vladimir Lenin- Vladimir Llyich Ulyanov (1870-1924) was a Russian socialist revolutionary, and politician. He was head of the government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 until 1922, and the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1924. Lenin was born to a wealthy family in Simbirsk, Russia.

Revolution of 1905; Bloody Sunday- On January 22, 1905, the tsar’s troops fired onto a crowd of workers in Saint Petersburg who were peacefully protesting for improved working conditions. The incident marked the point at which many Russians decided they could no longer trust the tsar. In October of 1905, strikes broke out in Saint Petersburg, and groups of workers called soviets took control of the city. Nicholas tried to calm the situation down by issuing the October Manifesto, which was a pledge to institute a constitutional government.

Charles Darwin/Social Darwinism- Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was an English naturalist and geologist. In 1859, Darwin published The Origin of Species. It explained a species’ traits are as a result of its past struggles with the environment, not given from a god. A British philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) turned the theory of evolution into a basis for a theory of ethics. Spencer’s argument of Social Darwinism justified the neglect of the poor and the working class, exploitation Native Americans, and the aggressive competition amongst nations.

Kulturkampf- Kulturkampf, cultural struggle in German, was an extreme church versus state conflict waged by Bismarck in Germany during the 1870s.

Rerum Novarum- Rerum Novarum was a papal issued document in 1891, that defended private property, religious education, and religious control of marriage laws. Rerum Novarum also condemned socialism and Marxism.

Impressionism- is a late 19th century art movement that began with a group of painters in

France. Impressionist paintings usually have small, but visible brush strokes.

Friedrich Nietzsche- Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher. His radical ideas questioned value of individuality and morality. “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often and sometimes frightened. But no price is too hight to pay for the privilege of owning yourself” -Nietzsche.

Sigmund Freud- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist, who is known for as the father of psychoanalysis. He denied the existence of God and he though of religion as an interference with nature. He thought that religion enables the weak, and takes pitt on them.

QUESTIONS

1. How was European society transformed by the Second Industrial Revolution? What new industries developed , and which do you think had the greatest impact in the twentieth century? How do you account for European economic difficulties in the second half of the nineteenth century?

European society was transformed in many ways by the Second Industrial Revolution. Industry became even more widespread in Europe. The Bessemer process allowed for stronger, cheaper steel which also led to increased growth. Automobile and electrical machines also were beginning to be developed at this time. The development of electrically powered machines had the greats impact of industry on daily life. Electricity could be used in a variety of different ways and helped industry become more complex. All of these advancements in technology, led to a better standard of living in Europe. While Industry and and agriculture bombed from 1850 to 1870, the end of the century’s economies slowed down. Poor weather and foreign competition created rubles for European farmers. Many workers still lived in difficult conditions. Several large banks in Europe failed in 1873, and the rate of investments slowed which caused some industries to stagnate. However at the very end of the 19th century, consumer demand began to revive the economy.

2. What was the status of women in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century? Why did they grow discontented with their lot? What factors led to change? To what extent had they improved their position by 1914?

In the second half of the 19th century women’s social roles began to change. Women during the 19th century, no matter what their class, were economically deprived and were dependent on their husbands, or family. Mostly all European women could not own property, and did not have the same rights to education, and voting, as men did. Since society at the time in Europe was based on property and wage earning, laws seriously disadvantaged women. Many factors led to change such as new employment opportunities for women. The expansion of the government, and large scale business organizations, like retail stores, gave women more opportunities for work and employment. By 1914, women had improved their position on topics like voting rights and gender equality, but it wasn’t until after World War I, when countries realized the contributions made by women in the War and decided to give them certain rights such as voting.

3. What was the status of the proletariat by 1860? Had it improved by 1914? What caused the growth in trade unions and organized mass political parties? Why were the debates over “opportunism? And “revisionism” important to the western European socialist parties?

The status of the proletariat had changed greatly from 1860 to 1914. In 1860 the proletariat was being exploited by the wealthier classes for their cheap labor. Marx and other socialist philosophers saw this and decided that the proletariate class should come together in order to be stronger. Trade unionism flourished during the second half of the century as governments began to recognize the right of workers to organize. All the major industrial countries in Europe allowed Trade Unionism by the late 19th century. There were debates over opportunism and revisionism because people could not agree on socialistic ideas. Bernstein saw flaws in Marxist thinking and rejected significant parts of Marxist theory. Revisionism was important to because it was in between Marxist ideas and more conservative ideas. German socialists condemned Bernstein’s views, but the SPD followed Bernstein’s views. Trade unions were prospering and did not want a revolution.

4. What were the benefits and drawbacks of industrialization for Russia? Were the tsars wise to attempt to modernize their country, or should they have left it as it was? How did Lenin’s view of socialism differ from that of the socialists in Western Europe?

The benefit of industrialization for Russia was that it gave it strengthened the country as a whole. On the other hand, industrialization weakened the tsar’s power. If it was the tsar’s main goal to hold onto power in Russia, then it was not wise to industrialize and modernize Russia. Industrialization in Russia was inevitable, and it was only a matter of time before the working proletariate class would over throw the tsar. Lenin wanted to achieve Marx’s communist utopia, and his ideas were much more radical compared to the socialists in Western Europe.

5. Why was science dominant in the second half of the nineteenth century? How did the scientific outlook change between 1850 and 1914?

Science and technology in the Second Industrial Revolution made the public more aware of science than ever before. During the 19th century science became the source for all human knowledge. Many scientists like Darwin explained new ideas and theories of life. The scientific outlook greatly changed because of the Second Industrial Revolution. People were more willing than ever before to pursue engineering and science based careers. More people slowly began to look to science instead of the bible and stories to answer their questions about the universe. Philosophers like Freud began to question the literal belief of the bible.

6. How did Nietzsche and Freud challenge traditional morality?

Nietzsche and Freud challenged traditional by their philosophical ideas and writings. They both regarded instincts as part of the mind. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher. His radical ideas questioned value of individuality and morality. “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often and sometimes frightened. But no price is too hight to pay for the privilege of owning yourself” -Nietzsche. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist, who is known for as the father of psychoanalysis. He denied the existence of God and he though of religion as an interference with nature. He thought that religion enables the weak, and takes pitt on them.

Sources

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

Some of these essays are rather short for a true Mandy study guide. Feel free to add much more than simply what I wrote!

Nationalism & Imperialism

TERMS

The Crimean War- the Crimean War (1853-1856) was the reaction to Russia’s attempt to expand its sphere of influence by capturing Crimea. By gaining the Ottoman held territory, Russia would gain a warm water port allowing it to expand its trade into the Mediterranean. France and Britain felt threatened by Russia’s decision of expansion and decided to fight with the Ottomans to stop the expansion of Russia. The Crimean War was a dissident chord which ended the Concert of Europe. For the first time in European history the French and British unite to fight one common enemy.

Camillo Cavour- Camillo Cavour (1810-1861) was a leading figure during the Italian unification. Cavour was the Prime Minister of Piedmont and Sardinia.

Cavour made his fortune investing in railroads, and as the owner of a newspaper. He was a leader whose beliefs were formed by the Enlightenment, classical economics, and utilitarianism.

Giuseppe Mazzini- (1805-1872) as an Italian politician and a supporter of the Italian unification. During the 1830s and 1840s Mazzini and his fellow republican, Giuseppe Garibaldi, led uprisings to try to unite Italy. Both were part of the Roman Republic of 1849.

Giuseppe Garibaldi- (1807-1882) was an Italian politician who sought to unite Italy. His military campaigns unified a large portion of Italy. Garibaldi wanted to to establish an Italian republic, but Cavour kept him from doing so by sending Piedmontese troops into southern Italy.

Transformismo before Italian unification in 1870, Italian parliamentary leaders would use bribes to “transform” enemies into friends. This act of bribery became known as trasformismo. Italian politics became a known for corruption.

Frederick William IV- (1795-1861) was the King of Prussia from 1840-1861. Liberal nationalists had almost given up after the suppression of the revolts of 1848 and 1849. Frederick William IV wanted to lead a unification movement, but Austria opposed it as it would weaken its sphere of influence in Prussia.

Otto von Bismarck- (1815-1898) was a conservative Prussian who became the first Chancellor of Germany in 1871. Bismarck more than any other person helped shape the course of Europe’s history for the next thirty years.

Danish war- The Danish war only lasted a few months in 1864. Bismarck’s strategy was to provoke and win a war with Austria. A disagreement in foreign relations between Denmark and the German Confederation gave him his opportunity. During this war, Bismarck had gained Russia’s friendship and he also made Napoleon III remain neutral until the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

Austro-Prussian War- The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 was a war between Austria and Prussia. On June 1, 1866, when Austria asked the German Confederation to intervene, Bismarck claimed this violated Prussia’s treaties with Austria.  The war ended with Austria surrendering Venetia to Italy, and it also weakened the Habsburg.

Franco-Prussian War- In 1868, the Spanish removed queen Isabella II from the throne and replaced her with Prince Leopold Hohenzollern. The French became worried that the Hohenzollerns were surrounding the territories of France. Bismarck started the war by sending an “edited” version of a telegram that William I wanted him to deliver to Napoleon III. This edited telegram made France declare war on Prussia.  This war ended with the German states becoming a powerful nation in Europe.

Napoleon III- Napoleon the III (1808-1873) was the leader of France from 1851-1870. Napoleon III’s rule was divided into two halves one being an authoritarian ruler to the second half becoming more liberal.

Paris Commune- the Paris Commune was a revolutionary government that ruled in Paris from March to May 1871. The short lived Paris Commune became famous. Marxists claimed it was a genuine proletarian government suppressed by the bourgeoisie even though it the goal of the commune was not to create a republic but a nation of relatively independent democratic states. Although the Paris Commune did not succeed at its goal it  showed that centralized national government was a better form of government over an alternative form of political organization.

Third Republic- The Third Republic of France was a type of government in that lasted in France from 1870 to 1940. In France the Third republic proved to be more durable that many had expected.

Dual Monarchy- was an agreement between Austria and Hungary that two monarchs would rule the Habsburg lands. The Dual Monarchy weakened the Habsburg territory even more.

Alexander II- Alexander II (1818-1881) was the Emperor of Russia from 1855-1881. Alexander II was one of the greatest reformers of Russia since Tsar Peter the Great. He reconstructed Russia’s political and military institutions.

Populism- populism is a political theory that appeals to the interests and needs of the general people. In the late 19th century in Russia, students formed a revolutionary movement known as populism.

The People’s Will- was a group of revolutionaries in Russia that sought to over through the monarchy. Its members decide to assassinate the tsar himself,  Alexander II. On March 1, 1881, members of the People’s Will assassinated Alexander II by throwing a bomb at him.

Alexander III- Alexander III (1845-1894) was the tsar of Russia from 1881-1894. He was conservative and turned back most of his father’s reforms. He strengthened the secret police and increased censorship of the press.

Second Reform Act 1867- the Second Reform act increased the size of the electorate by giving the working class more voting rights. The British realized that the only way they would win over the loyalty of the working class would be to give them the right to vote. The Second Reform Act of 1867 increased the number of voters in Britain from 1,430,000 to 2,470,000.

Gladstone- William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) was a liberal politician in Britain in the late 19th century. Gladstone helped pass the Education Act of 1870 which gave all people of Britain the right to free elementary schools. The Education Act of 1870 made sure the electorate was made up of literate voters.

Disraeli- Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) was a conservative politician in Britain in the late 19th century. Disraeli succeeded Gladstone in 1874. Disraeli helped pass the Public Health Act of 1875 which gave inexpensive health care to Britain.

The Irish Question- the Irish question had become a major issue of the 1880s while Gladstone was the prime minister of Britain. The Irish question was a debate wether Ireland should become a separate state from England.

QUESTIONS

1. Why did the Ottoman Empire attempt to reform itself between 1839 and 1914?  How successful were these efforts?

The Ottoman Empire attempted to reform itself because it saw how much more advanced the rest of Europe was compared to itself. The sultan tried to reconstruct the Ottoman government and military along European borders. The reforms attempted between 1839 and 1876 were known as the Tanzimat. These new reforms freed the economy, ended high taxes on the population, fought corruption, and extended religious tolerance throughout the Ottoman Empire. In 1856, another reform gave Jews and Christians the same rights. The Tanzimat also abolished tourture and gave more rights to foreigners and Christian missionaries. Although these liberal ideas were beneficial for the Ottoman Empire, they were difficult to implement. The success of these reforms are difficult to judge because they were more helpful in some regions compared to others. For some citizens of the Ottoman Empire these reforms seemed too radical and this led to outraged traditional Islamists. Reforms such as the Tanzimat were difficult to enact.

2. Why was it so difficult to unify Italy? What groups wanted unification? Why did Cavour succeed? What did Garibaldi contribute to Italian unification?

From 1830 to 1870 debates over national identity, unification, and independence from the Austrian Empire lingered throughout Italy. A majority of the population living on the Italian Peninsula wanted independence from the Austrians. Although a many agreed that the northern provinces of Lombardy and Venetia should be released from Austrian rule, disputes regarding the unification of Italy, and what type of government that should be established were not as clear. During this time period, the conservatives, the church, the republican nationalists, and the those who wanted Italy to remain divided, all had different views pertaining national identity, and unification of Italy. All of these opposing views made it difficult to unify Italy. Groups such as the followers of Camilio Cavour, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Giuseppe Garibaldi were all supporters of Italian unification. Cavour succeeded in unifying Italy because he promoted free trade, railway construction, modernization of agriculture and he also tried to win the support of the Italian nationalists. Garibaldi’s contribution to the unification of Italy was his militaristic approach. He forcefully united some parts of Italy.

3. How and why did Bismarck unify Germany? Why had earlier attempts failed? How did German unification affect the rest of Europe?

Bismarck unified Germany by opposing parliamentary government but favored a strong constitutional monarchy. When Bismarck became prime minister in 1862, he attacked the liberals in Prussia. He ignored the liberals so that he could unify Germany. Earlier attempts at unifying Germany had failed because the different political groups could not agree on how to try to unify the country. German unification changed Europe by creating a powerful new state that was stronger that Prussia was alone. The unification of Germany also weakened the power of the Habsburgs even more. After the the unification of Germany, conservative political ideas now controlled one of Europe’s stronges nations.

4. What events led to the establishment of the Third Republic? How were foreign and domestic policies intertwined during the Second Empire? What were the objectives of the Paris Commune?? How did the Dreyfus affair affect the Third Republic? 

The Third Republic was established after France had lost the Franco-Prussian War. The people of France had lost their confidence with the emperor. Politicians in France seized the moment and hoped to create a more democratic state without a autocratic monarch. The goals of the Third Republic and the Second Empire were similar.  The objectives of the Paris commune were to separate the church and state, limit working hours, and granting of pensions to government worker and their families. These objectives of the Paris commune were seen as extreme liberalism to conservatives at the time in France. The most difficult time the Third Republic experienced was the Dreyfus affair. On December 22, 1894, the French military found Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) guilty of treason. Dreyfus had been caught passing sensitive information to the German army. As a punishment, he was sent to Devil’s island. Later in 1896, information about Dreyfus’s treason came to light, and it was found the accusations against him had been forged. The Dreyfus case had long lasting political repercussions. It separated supporters and non-supporters in the Third Republic apart, which led to heightened political tensions. Repressions from the Dreyfus affair continued to divide the Third Republic roughly until the German invasion of France in 1940.

5. What problems did Austria share with other eastern European empires? Were they solved? Why did the Habsburgs agree to the Compromise of 1867? Was it a success?

One of the largest problems that faced eastern European empires in the 19th century was the ethnically diverse land they ruled. This put higher strain on the nations leaders and people. In Austria, the numerous ethic groups with in the Habsburg Empire confronted it with a unique challenge as it attempted to modernize its state. There were over 11 different ethnic groups with distinct languages that were part of the Austrian Empire. Many of these problems of ethnicity went unsolved, because it was undesirable for people to give up their unique customs to try to become a single nation of a homogenous culture and language. The Habsburgs agreed to the Compromise of 1867 because they wanted to become a stronger nation state. They agreed to combine the Austrian Habsburg lands with the Hungarian lands to create a single dual monarchy. The dual monarchy was cumbersome politically for Austria and Hungary. The dual monarchy was unique in European history.

6. What reforms did Alexander II institute in Russia? Did they solve Russia’s domestic problems? Why did the abolition of serfdom not satisfy the peasants?

The political reforms of Alexander II were both necessary to the tsar to retain power in Russia. The most significant difference between Russia and the rest of Europe in the 19th century was that Russia had still not abolished serfdom. The only western minded countries that still tolerated involuntary serivitude in the mid 19th century were Russia, areas of the United States, and Brazil. All of the other nations in Europe had already abolished serfdom 100-75 years earlier to Russia.  After the Crimean War, Alexander II made the decision to abolish serfdom. He stated that serfdom hindered Russia economically, and was a constant source of social unrest. Alexander II also reformed the government and judicial system in Russia. Among with other reforms Alexander II also reformed the military of Russia. The embarrassing defeat of the Crimean war prompted Alexander II to reform the military. Alexander II shortened the service time of peasants from 25 years of active duty to a significantly shorter 15 years. The abolition of serfdom did not satisfy the peasants because once they were freed they could not afford to own the land they had once worked on. As a result of the abolition of serfdom, Russia experienced famine due to the lower production rate of food.

7. How did the policies of the British Liberal and Conservative parties differ between 1860 and 1890? Why was home rule such a divisive issue in British politics?

There were noticeable differences between the British Liberal and Conservative parties during 1860 and 1890. The liberal Party favored social reform, reducing powers of the Church of England, and expanding the voting electorate. Gladstone sought for individualism, free trade, and wanted to solve social problems that plagued the poor proletariate working classes. The conservatives favored paternalistic legislation and government that would protect the weak. Disraeli was more conservative compared to Gladstone. Disraeli favored legislation that supported the Public Health Act of 1875. This act provided discounted health care for all citizens of England. The Irish nationalists wanted so called “home rule” which would allow the Irish to govern their own local government separate of the British. The debate over Irish home rule was a divisive issue in British politics because if Ireland was awarded the right to control its local government this would weaken Britain’s influence on Ireland. Many politicians were separated on the idea if Ireland should be given the power to control its own local government.

Sources

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

Hey please don’t just copy this… at least type it out. Have fun with Mandy!

Conservative Restoration

TERMS 

Klemens von Metternich- Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) was an an Austrian politician and statesman. He organized the Congress of Vienna from 1814-1815 which established peace in Europe for one hundred years.

Daniel O’Connell- (1775-1847) was an Irish political leader and reformer during the 19th century. He fought for the right for Catholics to sit in on the Westminster Parliament.

Six Acts- the Six Acts were conservative documents the British government created in order to prevent radical ideas from spreading. The Six Acts did not allow large unauthorized public meetings, raised the fines for holding large meetings, speeded up the trials of criminals, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited the training of armed groups, and allowed local officials to search homes in certain counties.

The Charter- was Louis XVIII’s constitution of France. It combined the monarchy and representative government. The Charter made Roman Catholicism the official religion of France, but also allowed for religious toleration.

Louis Philippe- Louis Philippe (1773-1850) was King of the French. Louis Philippe was sworn in as King Louis Philippe I on August 9, 1830. He adopted the title King of the French, a decision which linked the monarchy to the people, instead of the monarchy to the land, as Charles X did.

Congress System- the Congress system was a series of meetings in Europe between the major powers which promoted mutual cooperation and consultation. The first meeting of the Congress System convened at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818 between Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia.

Decembrist Revolt- the Decembrist Revolt was an unsuccessful revolution in 1825 which tried to create a constitution for Russia. The Decembrist Revolt was caused by a number of different reasons. After war with France, many of the soldiers in the Russian army saw how differently rural parts of Europe lived compared to the serfs in Russia. Also in 1825 Tsar Alexander I unexpectedly died. On December 26, 1825 when the army was to take its oath of allegiance to its new tsar, Nicholas I, the Moscow regiment, called for a constitution. Nicholas responded by firing upon the dissidents killing sixty of them.

Simon Bolivar- Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader. In 1810, Simon Bolivar helped organize a republican assembly in Caracas, Venezuela. In 1821, Simon Bolivar became president of Caracas. Simon Bolivar played a large role in Latin America’s independence from Spain.

“Eastern Question”- during the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire was on the decline. This raised the question in Europe known as the “Eastern Question”. What should European powers do in response of Ottoman instability and weakness in the Eastern Mediterranean?

liberalism- liberalism during the 19th century can be defined as almost any thought or idea that challenged conservative political, social, or religious values.

Quadruple Alliance-  the Quadruple Alliance was a coalition between the rulers of Russia, Austria, and Prussia that was signed in November of 1815. Its purpose was to bring harmony to Europe. The leaders of these countries knew that war not only affected armies but also was a detriment to the civilian population as well. These rulers wanted to prevent war from raging in Europe.

“Official Nationality”- was a program enacted in Russia by Nicholas I in 1833. The slogan of the Official Nationality program was “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism”. Правосла́вие, самодержа́вие, наро́дность. Orthodoxy was the official religion of Russia. Autocracy meant the unrestrained power of the tsar. Nationalism meant the glorification of Russian language, culture, and customs.

“Peterloo Massacre”- On August 16, 1819, at Saint Peter’s Fields in Manchester an organized mass meeting demanded the reform of the Parliament. As the speeches of the meeting were about to begin, the Royal troops were ordered to disperse the crowd. As a result eleven people were killed and many injured.

QUESTIONS

1. What difficulties did conservatives in Austria, Prussia, and Russia face in the years after the Napoleonic wars?  How did they respond on both national and international levels?

Many conservatives feared the widespread liberalistic and nationalistic thought as a result of the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars. There is an old European adage that if France begins to cough, then the rest of Europe will catch a cold. The rulers of Europe faced the challenging task of restoring stability and alliances between the nations of Europe while at the same time making sure liberalistic or nationalistic revolutions did not reappear in their territory. Conservatives in Austria and Prussia faced the largest problem with dealing with liberalism and nationalism. The conservative monarchies of the two countries could deal with liberalism and nationalism to an extent, but the two ideas still were a threat to their ideology. The Congress of Vienna replaced the Holy Roman Empire with the German Confederation under Austrian leadership. Russia became an even more powerful European nation as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. With the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825, political stability in Russia suffered. As a result of Alexander’s death, his younger brother Nicholas I stepped up to the throne. Constantine the older of Alexander’s two brothers declined the opportunity to the Russian throne. In the midst of the confusion, a group of military officers organized a revolt in favor of Alexander’s older brother Constantine to be Tsar, who was in favor of a constitutional monarchy. This was called the Decembrist Revolt. It was quickly put down by Nicholas I, who later ruled Russia with a tight grip. Nicholas I created programs to promote conservative nationalism like the “Official Nationality” program.

2. What were the aims of the Concert of Europe?  What did it accomplish and why did Britain withdraw?

The main goals of the Concert of Europe were to establish long lasting peace through conservative rule. Austria, Prussia, Russia and Great Britain decided at the Congress of Vienna that no single nation should be allowed to rule all of Europe. The countries decided to resolve international disputes with diplomacy instead of war. The rulers of these countries also created the Quadruple Alliance, which was a coalition of countries that had agreed to prevent another nightmarish situation like the one cause by Napoleon. The goals of the Concert of Europe were to uphold the agreements made at the Congress of Vienna. It also made sure to avoid another dictator like Napoleon from gaining power. The countries decided to maintain a balance of power because they agreed no single country should rule Europe. The Concert of Europe successfully gave Greece its independence from Ottoman rule. Britain withdrew from the Concert of Europe for several reasons. After 1815, Britain experienced poor harvests. At the same time unemployment rates soared due to a decreasing size of the military. “With budget cuts, troop levels were cut from 233,592 men in 1815 to 102,529 men by 1828. There were further reductions in 1838, after which troop number stood at 91,388” (Chandler 164). After the Napoleonic Wars, Europe was at peace for over forty years which led to the neglect of the military which led to unemployment of many. Britain withdrew from the Concert of Europe due to its own domestic problems.

3. What were the tenets of liberalism? Who were the liberals and how did liberalism affect the political developments of the early 19th century?  What relationship does liberalism have to nationalism?

The main tenets of liberalism in Europe were the ideas of limited government and liberty of individuals. They believed in free speech, freedom of religion, press, assembly, and laissez faire. Adam Smith was a liberal who published his most important work, The Wealth of Nations. The Wealth of Nations reinforced the idea of laissez faire policy, and let individual businesses set their own prices and production levels. This idea of laissez faire made some governments adopt the idea. Liberalism and nationalism during the 19th century were two different political thoughts. Liberalists believed in less conservative rule, and nationalists believed that people in their country were united by a common culture, language, and history. Many liberalists were also nationalists like Otto von Bismarck.

4. Describe the constitution of the restored monarchy in France.  Was the government truly constitutional?  What did Charles X hope to accomplish?  How much support did he have?

The constitution of the restored monarchy gave the monarchy some limits. The new constitution of France was called the Charter. The Charter promised most of the rights the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen had spoken about. The Charter allowed religious toleration but Catholicism was made the official language of France. The government was not truly constitutional because the king elected all of the the members of the upper house, and the Chamber of Peers. Charles X’s goal was to try to restore France as much as he could to a true conservative monarchy. Charles X was a firm believer in rule by divine right. To support the Catholic Church, Charles X made a law that punished sacrilege with imprisonment or death. Charles X did not have the support of the liberals by any means. The reaction of his policies was the revolution of 1830.

5. What were the causes of the revolution of 1830?  What did the new revolution achieve, and at what cost?

The cause of the revolution of 1830 was the reaction to Charles X extreme conservatism. Charles X made a law that punished sacrilege with imprisonment or death. He also began measures of restoring the land to aristocrats who had lost it during the rule of Napoleon. People began accusing Charles of violating the terms of the Charter. The revolution of 1830 ended the rule of Charles X and the house of Bourbon’s rein. The new leader was Louis Philippe. Louis Philippe (1773-1850) was King of the French. Louis Philippe was sworn in as King Louis Philippe I on August 9, 1830. He adopted the title King of the French, a decision which linked the monarchy to the people, instead of the monarchy to the land, as Charles X did. Louis Philippe created a conceptional monarchy.

6. Before 1820, Britain appeared to be moving down the same reactionary road as other major powers. What factors led to a different outcome in Britain?  How did the “liberal” Tories hope to limit revolutionary sentiment?  Why did the Tory government fail?

A revolution did not occur in Britain because of the government’s ability to suppress the masses with marginal compromise. Several factors contributed to compromise in Britain. The commercial and industrial class was larger in Britain compared to other European countries. The British government knew this and they had to compromise with their interests in mind or else hurt the British economy. The Great Reform Bill passed in 1832, laid the path for further orderly reforms with in the British constitution. The Great Reform Bill increased the number of voters in Britain by 200,000 people. The Tories limited revolutionary sentiment by compromising with the people enough to stop a revolution.

7. What was the purpose of the Great Reform Bill?  What did it achieve?  Would you call it a “revolutionary” document?

The purpose of the Great Reform Bill was to change legislative system in England. It wanted to give large industrial cities, like Manchester, a voice in parliament.  The Great Reform Bill gave large industrial cities like Manchester a voice in parliament. It also got rid of small towns with wealthy land owners a voice in parliament also called “rotten boroughs”. The bill increased the amount of voters in Britain by fifty percent. The Great Reform Bill was extraordinary but not quite revolutionary. It gave only male land owners the right to vote. Women still did not have a voice in politics what so ever in Britain. The Great Reform Bill did get rid of many towns with small populations with had wealthy landowners a voice in government but it still did not address all of the problems in the electoral system. Several rotten boroughs still existed even after the Great Reform Bill. Bribery still plagued the electoral system even after the bill.

8. Discuss two of the following pieces of legislation: Carlsbad Decrees: Catholic Emancipation Act; Great Reform Bill: Organic Statue.  What were their purposes, what did they achieve and why were they significant for the history of the period?

The purpose of the Great Reform Bill was to change legislative system in England. It wanted to give large industrial cities, like Manchester, a voice in parliament.  The Great Reform Bill gave large industrial cities like Manchester a voice in parliament. It also got rid of small towns with wealthy land owners a voice in parliament also called “rotten boroughs”. The bill increased the amount of voters in Britain by fifty percent. The Organic Statue of the Kingdom of Poland replaced the previous constitution of 1815. The Great Reform Bill was significant because it put Britain one step closer to a democracy. The Organic Statue signed by Nicholas I of Russia, officially made parts of Poland including Warsaw part of Russia. The statute merged the Polish and Russian military together. The Polish Parliament (Sejm) was also disbanded. The purpose of the Organic Statute was to officially merge Poland and Russia together. The statue was a significant because it was another moment in time and in history that Russia merged with another country.

Chandler, David G., and I. F. W. Beckett. “P.164, Para 2.” The Oxford History of the British Army. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. N. pag. Print.

Napoleon and Romanticism

TERMS

Napoleon Bonaparte- Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1851) was a military commander who became the leader of France from 1804 to 1814 and then briefly in 1815. Napoleon Bonaparte conquered a significant portion of Europe during the time he was leader of France.

Treaty of Campo Formio- was a treaty signed on October 18, 1797 by Napoleon Bonaparte and Count Philipp con Cobenzl. The treaty officially gave conquered areas, such as areas of Northern Italy and several Mediterranean islands to France. It also redistributed territories along the Rhine River.

Constitution of Year VIII- was a national constitution which established the French Consulate on December 7, 1799. This constitution gave Napoleon Bonaparte significant power as leader of France.

Consulate- the Consulate was the French government from 1799 to 1804 which was dominated by Napoleon Bonaparte.

Second Coalition & the Treaty of Luneville Refractory Clergy & the Concordat Organic Articles of 1802- the Second Coalition was a signed alliance between Austria, Russia, Turkey, the Vatican, Portugal and Naples against Napoleonic France. The Treaty of Luneville in early 1801 took Austria out of the war. The Refractory Clergy were members of the church who refused to accept the terms of Napoleonic Code. The Organic Articles of 1802 were presented by Napoleon and gave him partial control of the Catholic Church in France. The Organic Articles faced large opposition by the Catholic Church in Rome.

The Napoleonic Code- in 1804 Napoleon ratified a constitution that made him consul for life, and then he soon produced another constitution that granted him full power of France.

Peace of Amiens 1802- the Peace of Amiens of 1802 between France and Britain was merely a truce. Napoleon’s large ambition of conquering Europe made it impossible for the Peace of Amiens 1802 to assure true peace.

Horatio, Lord Nelson & the Battle of Trafalgar- Admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805) was a British officer in the Royal Navy. The Battle of Trafalgar was a naval engagement between the French and the British on October 21, 1805. Admiral Horatio Nelson was fatally wounded during the battle by a French sharpshooter. His death made him a national hero in Britain.
Ulm, Austerlitz, Treaty of Pressburg- the French victory in mid October 1805 at Ulm allowed Napoleon to capture the Austrian city of Vienna. In December 1805 at the Battle of Austerlitz the French forces engaged against the combined forces of the Austrians and Russians. The French secured a decisive victory and gained considerable territory in Austria.
Treaty of Tilsit- the Treaty of Tilsit were two signed agreements between Napoleon of France in the small town of Tilsit. The first was signed by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and the second was with Prussia. It was at the time to Russia’s advantage to align temporary with the French so that they could try to defeat the Ottoman Turks in the Black Sea so the Russians could gain a warm water port.
The Continental System- The Continental System was a blockade by the French Navy against the British. The French did not allow their territories to trade with the British in hope of weakening their economy. Unfortunately for Napoleon, this tactic did not work because Russia still maintained trade with Britain and Britain did not need the raw materials from Europe due to there prosperous overseas colonies.
Invasion of Russia- the invasion of Russia by the French began on June 24, 1812 when Napoleon’s army crossed the Neman River into Russia. The French sustained heavy losses during the invasion. The Russians would retreat and burn the land behind them so that the French Army could not live off the land. As the winter of 1812 came around the French army had started to encounter serious problems. Food shortages, water shortages, low moral, and extreme cold plagued the French army. Finally the French gave up their efforts and abandoned the campaign. As the French army retreated the Russian Army would attack the French rear. Over 400,000 deaths were sustained by the French Army by the end of the campaign.
Prince Klemens von Metternich- Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) was an Austrian political and statesman. He is known for organizing the Congress of Vienna.
The Congress of Vienna- the Congress of Vienna was a meeting between the conservative leaders of Prussia, Russia, Britain, and Austria. The chief goal of the Congress of Vienna was to prevent a situation like Napoleon from happening again and to establish peace in Europe.
Robert Stewart, Viscount Castlereagh & the Treaty of Chaumont The Hundred Days- Robert Stewart and Viscount Castlereagh were both diplomats from Britain. The two and and the British foreign secretary brought about the signing of the Treaty of Chaumont on March 9, 1814. The treaty restored the Bourbon Monarchy in France. It also resized the territorial borders of France back to what they had been in 1793.
Holy Alliance- the Holy Alliance was an agreement between the rulers of Russia, Austria, and Prussia signed in 1815. The alliance was an attempt by the conservative rulers of Europe to restore the traditional rule back to Europe and to rule by Christian ideals. The British declined being part of the alliance. The Holy Alliance transitioned into the more secular Quadruple Alliance.
Quadruple Alliance- the Quadruple Alliance was a coalition between the rulers of Russia, Austria, and Prussia that was signed in November of 1815. Its purpose was to bring harmony to Europe. The leaders of these countries knew that war not only affected armies but also was a detriment to the civilian population as well. These rulers wanted to prevent war from raging in Europe.
Romanticism- was the reaction against the rationalism and scientific thought of the Enlightenment. It focused on the importance of human feelings, intuition, and imagination as supplements to reason.

Immanuel Kant- Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) was a philosopher and writer during the 18th century. He sought find a balance between the ideas of the Enlightenment and the belief in god.

S.T. Coleridge- Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) was an English philosopher and poet. He and his friend William Wordsworth were founders of Romanticism in England. Coleridge’s works were a dominant influence on Emerson and American transcendentalism.

W.Wordsworth- William Wordsworth (1770-1850) was an English poet and philosopher. He and his friend Samuel Taylor Coleridge played a major role in introducing Romanticism to England.

Lord Byron- Lord Byron (1788-1824) was an English poet and writer. He was a key figure during Romantic Movement. He is best known for his works “Don Juan” and “Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage”.
Methodism- methodism was a movement that began in England by John Wesley, Oxford educated Anglican priest. Methodism was the first major religion to intertwine ideas of Romanticism. It emphasized religion as a method for living rather than a set of doctrines and guidelines.

G.W. Hegel- George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831) was a German philosopher. Hegel believed ideas cannot develop without first involving conflict. Acording to Hegel, ideas will only be accepted after they are combined with a conflicting idea to form what he called a synthesis.

Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam- Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam is a Muslim text of Nishapur, a Persian poet of the twelfth century. It was first translated in 1859 by Edward Fitzgerald. Romanticism presented the Muslim culture to Europeans in a positive way.

QUESTIONS

1. How did Napoleon rise to power? What groups supported him? What were his
major domestic achievements? Did his rule fulfill or betray the French
Revolution? 

Napoleon rose to power as he ascended the ranks of the French military as an artillery gunner. As a young artillery officer Napoleon defeated the British Navy at the battle of Toulon. After the battle Napoleon was promoted to general. Eventually Napoleon gained more power over France’s military than French government of the time. Napoleon Bonaparte supported a sense of French nationalism, a tool which helped him muster such a large army. Napoleon also established the Napoleonic code which ended hereditary privileges, preserved the goals of the French Revolution, and also made him the official leader of France. The beginning of Napoleon’s rule fulfilled the goals of the French Revolution. Although women did not have the same rights as men, the some ideas of the Napoleonic code resonated with the ideas of the French Revolution. Towards the end of Napoleon’s rule it seems as though he completely abandoned the ideals of the French Revolution due to his own greed. He had hoped to establish a dynasty in Europe. Napoleon did as any human being would have done in his position. When one has seemingly unlimited power and wealth, they will be led astray from their original ideals by their own greed.

2. Why did Napoleon decide to invade Russia? Why did the operation fail? Can Napoleon be considered a military genius? Why or why not? 

Napoleon invaded Russia in attempt to further expand his already vast empire. When Napoleon invaded Russia in June 24, 1814 when Napoleon’s army crossed the Neman River into Russia. The French sustained heavy losses during the invasion.

The Russian general Mihail Kutuzov adopted a technique of burning the land behind them as they fell back further and further into Russia. This caused Napoleon’s troops to suffer heavy losses as they could not live off the land. The expanse of Russia made it difficult for Napoleon’s supply chain to reach the front line. Once Napoleon reached Moscow the Russians decided to set the city on fire. After the Russians did not surrender Napoleon decided to fallback. This led to the deaths of hundreds of thousands of his soldiers. Napoleon’s campaign in Russia failed because he did not expect the Russians to keep retreating drawing him further and further into their country. The French Army was not equipped to handle the frigid cold of the Russian winter. Napoleon was a military genius who became numbed by victory. In the beginning of Napoleon’s rule he was a military prodigy. He was able to attack and defeat the most daunting enemies. After he had conquered most of Western Europe, he had gradually become too confident in his military skills.

3. What were the goals of the major powers at the Congress of Vienna? What were the results of the Congress of Vienna, and why were they significant?

The Congress of Vienna was a meeting between the conservative leaders of Prussia, Russia, Britain, and Austria. The chief goal of the Congress of Vienna was to prevent a situation like Napoleon from happening again and to establish peace in Europe. The end result of the Congress of Vienna was the “concert of Europe”. The Congress of Vienna established peace in Europe for one hundred years until World War I. The peace that lasted in Europe after the Congress of Vienna was called the “concert of Europe” because at this time all of the European countries were in harmony with one another. The Congress of Vienna created a Europe in which no country dominated. The Congress of Vienna ended the Holy Roman Empire. This made it much easier for the German States to unify in 1866.

4.Compare the role of the feelings for romantic writers with the role of reason for
Enlightenment writers. What questions did Rousseau and Kant raise about reason? Why was poetry important to romantic writers? How did the romantic concepts of religion differ form Reformation Protestantism and Enlightenment deism? How did romantic ideas and sensibilities modify European ideas of Islam and the Middle East? What were the cultural results of Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt? 

Romanticism was the reaction against the rationalism and scientific thought of the Enlightenment. It focused on the importance of human feelings, intuition, and imagination as supplements to reason. The role of reason was less important to Romantic writers than it was to Enlightenment writers. Romantic writers focused more on human feelings and emotions.

Rousseau and Kant both agreed that pure reason can be useful but they also both agreed that reason is not always right. Rousseau believed that the lives of humans before civilization were better than the lives of people today. Kant believed in how humans gain knowledge from nature not purely from reason. Romantic concepts of religion differed greatly from previous forms of religion. Religion during Romanticism transitioned towards being more of a method of living your life to “perfect yourself in the eyes of god” instead of living according strict guidelines as “god would have wanted”. Romantic ideas and sensibilities portrayed Islamic culture as different but acceptable. This acceptive attitude of most Europeans allowed the two cultures to be more acceptive of one another. The cultural results of Napoleons’s invasion led to a deeper understanding of Ancient Egyptian culture. The Rosetta Stone let translators decipher Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Sources 

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.