Category Archives: Late Middle Ages

Могла ли НЭП остаться экономической политикой на более длительный период?

Могла ли НЭП остаться экономической политикой Советского государства на более длительный период, чем это произошло на самом деле? Отвечало ли свертывание НЭП государственным интересам в краткосрочной и более длительной перспективе? Какие последствия могло бы повлечь за собой продолжение НЭП?

НЭП, новая экономическая политика, был экономическим планом, отстаиваемым Лениным как средство перезапуска российской экономики после русской революции. НЭП был необходим для перезапуска российской экономики. НЭП допускал в определенной степени свободный рынок и капитализм. Он заменил военный коммунизм, чтобы стимулировать экономику.

Однако во второй половине 1920-х годов развитие экономики НЭПа начало становиться противоречивым, поскольку оно не обязательно следовало идеалам коммунизма. Безработица была серьезной проблемой во время НЭПа. В 1923 году на биржах труда было зарегистрировано 160 тысяч человек, а уже в 1927 году было около 1,5 миллиона безработных. Развитие сельского хозяйства при НЭПе также было спорным. Ограничения в развитии крупного товарного крестьянского хозяйства привели к обострению противостояния между правительством и богатым крестьянством.

Новая экономическая политика не стала «всерьез и надолго» вопреки тому, что сказал Ленин, прежде всего потому, что руководители государства не могли сочетать идеи свободного рынка и социалистических идеалов. Ленин считал, что НЭП был существенным шагом назад на пути к коммунизму.

Одна из главных причин отказа от НЭПа заключалась в том, что он рассматривался как «временное отступление» социалистических идеалов. В эпоху НЭПа возник класс буржуазии. Люди, которые стали богатыми в результате НЭПа, стали называться НЭПами.

Ленин и его последователи рассматривали НЭП как временную меру. Однако он оказался крайне непопулярным среди некоторых членов большевистской партии из-за ее компромисса с некоторыми капиталистическими элементами и отказа от государственного контроля. Многие большевики рассматривали НЭП как предательство коммунистических принципов и полагали, что это будет иметь отрицательный долгосрочный экономический эффект, поэтому вместо этого они хотели полностью спланированной экономики.

В частности, во время НЭПа было создано богаты класс торговцев «НЭПманы», которых коммунисты считали «классовыми врагами» рабочего класса. Известно также, что Ленин говорил о НЭПе: «Мы делаем один шаг назад, а потом делаем два шага вперед», предполагая, что, хотя НЭП указал в другом направлении, это в конечном итоге обеспечит экономические условия, необходимые для социализма. улучшаться.

Несмотря на мнение Ленина о том, что НЭП должен длиться несколько десятилетий, в 1928 году, после всего лишь семи лет НЭПа, Сталин ввел полное централизованное планирование, повторно национализировал большую часть экономики, а с конца 1920-х годов ввел политику быстрой индустриализации. Сталинская коллективизация сельского хозяйства была его наиболее заметным отходом от НЭПа.

Леон Троцкий и Иосиф Сталин разошлись во мнениях о том, как развивать советскую экономику после Первой мировой войны и гражданской войны в России. Троцкий, поддержанный радикальными членами Коммунистической партии, считал, что социализм в России выживет только в том случае, если государство будет контролировать распределение всей продукции. Троцкий считал, что государству следует повторно владеть всей продукцией, чтобы инвестировать в формирование капитала. С другой стороны, Сталин поддерживал более умеренных членов Коммунистической партии и выступал за государственную капиталистическую экономику. Сталину удалось вырвать контроль над Коммунистической партией у Троцкого. После победы над троцкистской группировкой Сталин изменил свое мнение об экономической политике и выполнил первый пятилетний план. Начало пятилетних планов ознаменовало конец НЭПа.

В некотором смысле, НЭП был небольшим поворотом к дореволюционной России. Класс НЭПа, по сути, стал новой буржуазией в социалистической России. Трудно сказать, что именно произошло бы, если бы Ленин прожил достаточно долго, чтобы увидеть долгосрочную реализацию НЭПа. Если бы было достигнуто стабильное производство зерна, безработица уменьшилась, и если бы Ленин прожил дольше, возможно, что НЭП мог бы стать более долгосрочной политикой. Вполне возможно, что в результате НЭПа в России мог произойти такой же экономический рост, какой был у Китая после экономических реформ после Мао Цзэдуна в 1980-х годах.

Философия Герберт Спенсера

Московский государственный институт международных отношений (университет) Министерства иностранных дел Российской Федерации

Кафедра философии

Аналитическая справка по философии.
Тема: «Герберт Спенсер «Законы Социальной Эволюции»

Москва 2017 год

Жизнь Спенсера:

Герберт Спенсер (1820-1903) был английским философом, биологом, антропологом, социологом и видным либеральным политическим теоретиком викторианской эпохи. Будучи эрудитом, он интересовался широким кругом вопросов, включая этику, социологию, экономику, политическую теорию, философию, литературу, биологию и психологию. В течение своей жизни Спенсер пользовался огромной популярностью, главным образом в англоязычных академиях. Единственным другим английским философом, получившим такую широко распространенную популярность, был Бертран Рассел в 20 веке (Acton).

Он был одним из главных сторонников эволюционной теории в середине 19 века, и его репутация в то время была сравнима с Чарльзом Дарвином (1809-1882). Спенсер стал изначально настолько известным за разработку и применение эволюционной теории к философии, психологии и изучение общества. Однако сегодня он, как правило, запомнился в философских кругах своими политическими теориями, в первую очередь своей защитой естественных прав и критикой утилитарного позитивизма.

Спенсер родился в Дерби, Англия 27 апреля 1820 года, старший из девяти детей, но единственный, кто выжил в детстве. Он получил несистематизированное, в основном неформальное образования. Его дядя предложил отправить его в Кембридж, однако Спенсер отказался от этого предложения, и, в результате, большая часть высшего образования Спенсера была результатом его собственного чтения (Acton). В раннем возрасте на Спенсера сильное влияние оказали индивидуализм, анти-истеблишмент и антиклерикальные взгляды его отца, а также радикальные взгляды Бентама. В результате, ранние годы Спенсера проявили в нём значительную сопротивляемость авторитету.

Человек с широкими интересами, Спенсер в конце концов выучился на инженера-строителя железных дорог, но в начале 20-х годов он обратился к журналистике и политическому письму. В ранние годы он был сторонником радикальной философии и определял что есть «хорошее», а что «плохое» с

точки зрения удовольствия и боли. Он также выступал за идею, известную как «принцип величайшего счастья», который показывает сходство с утилитаризмом. С 1848 по 1853 год Спенсер работал писателем и редактором финансового еженедельника The Economist и, в результате, вступил в контакт с рядом спорных политических деятелей. Несмотря на разнообразие мнений, которым он подвергался, уверенность Спенсера в его собственных взглядах сочеталась с упрямством и отказом читать авторов, с которыми он не соглашался (Sweet).

В своих ранних работах Спенсер выступал за радикализм, в частности, за национализацию земли и определённую степени отражения в экономике политики laissez-faire. В ранние годы Спенсер также много писал о роли женщин в обществе. Однако позже Спенсер отказался от своих ранних сочинений и теорий.

В 1851 году была опубликована первая книга Спенсера «Социальная статика», или «Условия, важные для человеческого счастья». Термин «социальная статика» был заимствован у Огюста Конта и касается условий социального порядка. Эта работа была предварительной для изучения прогресса и эволюции человека, также известной как социальная динамика. В этой работе Спенсер описывает развитие человеческой свободы и защиту индивидуальных свобод, основанную на эволюционной теории Ламарки (1744-1829).

В 1853 году дядя Спенсера умер, оставив Спенсеру небольшое наследство, которое позволило ему больше писать. В 1855 году Спенсер опубликовал свою вторую книгу «Принципы психологии». Как и в «Социальной статике», Спенсер следует основным чертам Джереми Бентама (1738-1832) и Джона Стюарта Милля (1806-1873). После его публикации Спенсер позже пересмотрел «Принципы психологии», и, в результате, Джон Стюарт Милл согласился с некоторыми аргументами Спенсера. Однако принципы психологии были гораздо менее успешными, чем социальная статика, и примерно в это время Спенсер начал испытывать серьезные проблемы с психическим здоровьем, которые затронули всю его оставшуюся жизнь.

Его ухудшающееся здоровье привело его к поиску конфиденциальности, и он все чаще избегал появляться на публике. В результате его здоровья он мог писать всего несколько часов каждый день. Тем не менее, Спенсер начал писать девятитомную «Систему Синтетической Философии» (1862-93), в которой подробно излагались его взгляды в области биологии, социологии, этики и политики. Эта обширная работа объединила широкий спектр идей из различных естественных и социальных наук и организовала ее в соответствии с принципами его эволюционной теории.

Его популярность росла с каждым новым изданием, и среди его поклонников были как радикальные мыслители, так и выдающиеся ученые, в том числе Джон Стюарт Милл и физик Джон Тиндаль (1820-1893). В 1860-х и 1870-х годах влияние эволюционной теории Спенсера было наравне с влиянием Чарльза Дарвина.

В 1883 году Спенсер был избран членом философского отдела Французской академии моральных и политических наук в Париже. Его работа также оказала особое влияние на Соединенные Штаты, где его книга «Изучение социологии» находилась в центре спора среди высших эшелонов американского общества.

Его репутация была на пике в 1870-х и начале 1880-х годов, и он был номинирован на Нобелевскую премию по литературе в 1902 году. Спенсер отказался от большинства почестей, которые ему дали. Здоровье Спенсера значительно ухудшилось за последние два десятилетия его жизни, и он умер в относительном уединении 8 декабря 1903 года. В течение его жизни было продано миллион копий его книг, и его книги были переведены на французский, немецкий, испанский, итальянский и русский.

Философия Спенсера:

Многое может быть написано о философии Спенсера и ее влиянии, однако в этом сочинения мы остановимся на философии, содержащейся в работе Спенсера «Законы Социальной̆ Эволюции» (The Principles of Sociology (1876)). Спенсер также много писал о биологической эволюции. Затем он применил свои теории относительно биологической эволюции к эволюции общества.

Спенсер видел всю философию как синтез фундаментальных принципов и замену теологическим системам Средневековья. Исходя из этого, можно увидеть влияние Огюста Конта (1798-1857) на Спенсера. Конт предложил обществу пройти три этапа в поисках истины. Мы кратко рассмотрим три этапа Конта, чтобы лучше понять работу Спенсера.

Первым этапом трёх этапов социологии Конта является Теологическая стадия. На этом этапе люди считают, что все явления природы – это создание божественного или сверхъестественного. Люди не могли обнаружить естественные причины различных явлений и, следовательно, приписывали их сверхъестественной или божественной силе.

Второй этап – Метафизическая стадия. Метафизическая стадия – это расширение богословского этапа. Метафизическая стадия относится к объяснению безличными абстрактными понятиями. Люди часто пытались поверить, что Бог является абстрактным существом. Они считают, что абстрактная сила направляет и определяет события в мире. Метафизическое мышление отвергает веру в конкретного Бога.

Третий этап, этап позитивности, также известный как научная сцена, относится к научным объяснениям, основанным на наблюдении, экспериментировании и сравнении. На этом этапе люди объясняют окружающий мир наблюдением и экспериментами. Позитивизм – это чисто интеллектуальный способ взглянуть на мир, и он подчеркивает наблюдение и классификацию данных и фактов.

Спенсер был сторонником позитивизма. Он утверждал, что информация, полученная через чувственный опыт, затем интерпретируется через разум и логику. Согласно Спенсеру, исключительный источник всех знаний происходит от чувственного познания. Однако сам Спенсер был агностиком, несмотря на то, что он был сторонником позитивизма.

На работу Спенсера повлиял французский биолог Жан-Батист Ламарк (1744-1829). Ламарк предположил, что организмы эволюционировали благодаря использованию и изъятию определенных признаков. Например, если жираф постоянно тянется к листьям, его шея будет длиннее. Его потомство унаследовало бы более длинную шею, и продолжение растяжения сделало бы ее еще более длинной в течение нескольких поколений. Тем временем органы, которые перестали использовать организмы, атрофируются. Ламарк также утверждал, что со временем все организмы усложняются. Спенсер применил некоторые теории Ламарка о биологической эволюции к своим собственным теориям, описывающим, как развиваются общества.

Спенсер использует философию Конта и теории Ламарка, чтобы описать, почему общества развиваются. Спенсер описывает общество как «живой организм» (Спенсер с. 451), и подобно организму общество является совокупностью «живых тел» (Спенсер с. 452). Спенсер писал об организмах, развивающихся от простых к более сложным формам. Он видел общество как развивающееся путем увеличения разделения труда от недифференцированный массы к сложной цивилизации.

Спенсер пишет, что, если часть общества терпит неудачу, все общество страдает, как в живом организме. Спенсер утверждает, что существует «взаимная зависимость» (Спенсер с. 455) между всеми частями общества, как и в организме.

Если легкие у млекопитающего перестают работать, сердце в конечном итоге прекратит биться, если желудок перестанет переваривать, животное, в конечном итоге будет голодать и т. д. Например, «железные рабочие [будут] останавливаться, если шахтеры не поставляют металл» (Спенсер с. 452). Важно отметить, что Спенсер опубликовал свою идею сравнения эволюции биологических видов с обществами до публикации работ Чарльза Дарвина. В то время Спенсер считал, что эволюция была вызвана наследованием приобретенных характеристик и общими сложностями организмов, тогда как Дарвин приписывал биологическую эволюцию естественному отбору.

Спенсер, прочитав работу Дарвина «О происхождении видов», позже признал, что естественный отбор был одной из причин биологической эволюции. Интересно, что именно Спенсер придумал термин «выживание наиболее приспособленных», а не Дарвин. Спенсер использовал эту идею о «выживании сильнейшего», чтобы поддержать его аргумент в отношении экономики laissez faire.

Несмотря на то, что Спенсер любит сравнивать живые организмы с обществом, он также заявляет, что существует одно существенное различие. Спенсер утверждает, что большая разница между животным и обществом заключается в том, что у животного есть одно сознание, тогда как общество состоит из многих. Спенсер заявляет, что общество существует на благо его членов, а не ради выгоды. Эта идея о существовании общества на благо его членов является краеугольным камнем работы Спенсера.

В «Законах Социальной Эволюции» Спенсер сравнивает военные и индустриальные общества и описывает, какой дает больше власти индивидууму. Он пишет, что военные общества, контролируемые абсолютным правителем, примитивны и плохи, потому что у человека меньше власти. Он считал, что «индустриальный тип общества» (Спенсер с. 335) дает больше власти человеку. В некотором смысле эта идея напоминает политическую философию Карла Маркса (1818-1883). Однако, в отличие от Спенсера, Маркс считает, что социальные изменения происходят внезапно, а не через процесс эволюции.

Моя мнения:

Философия Спенсера об эволюции общества вызывает размышления, однако он не углубляется в размышления о том, почему общества развиваются. Спенсер объясняет, что процесс эволюции общества является результатом разделения труда от недифференцированной массы к сложным обществам и не более того. Эволюция рассматривается как автоматический естественный процесс, в котором общество экономически модернизируется посредством разделения труда. Идея Спенсера о позитивистском утилитаризме смутно связана с его идеей общества как организма (Hossain с. 59).

Чтение и изучение философии Спенсера было довольно приятным. Теперь, познакомившись с его философией, можно увидеть влияние его работы на вопросы, касающиеся функции правительства и индивидуальных прав. Хотя я считаю, что эволюция общества сложнее, чем просто работающая сила, становящаяся все более разнообразной, мне нравится идея Спенсера о сравнении общество с организмом. Различные части общества действительно взаимозависимы. Я также соглашаюсь с тем, что общество существует на благо каждого человека в нём. Работа Спенсера очень мудра и должна изучаться теми, кто хочет лучше понять утилитаризм и эволюцию общества с течением времени.

Цитаты

Acton, Harry Burrows. “Herbert Spencer.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 9 June 2017, www.britannica.com/biography/Herbert- Spencer#ref145503.

Hossain, Dewan, and Sohela Mustari. A Critical Analysis of Herbert Spencer’s Theory of Evolution. University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, International Islamic University Malaysia, 2012.

Spencer, Herbert. The Principles of Sociology. Williams and Norgate, 15, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London, 1876. Print.

Sweet, William. “Herbert Spencer.” Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 22 Mar. 2012, www.iep.utm.edu/spencer/#H1.

Ошибки и достижения российской дипломатии во время периода перестройки

Московский государственный институт международных отношений (университет) Министерства иностранных дел Российской Федерации

Кафедра дипломатии

Тема: «Ошибки и достижения российской дипломатии во время периода перестройки»

Москва 2017 год

Перестройка была политическим движением за реформирование Коммунистической партии Советского Союза в 1980-х годах и до 1991 года, широко связана с советским лидером Михаилом Горбачевым (1931-по настоящее время) и его реформой политики гласности. Перестройка непосредственно связана с распадом Советского Союза, революциями 1989 года в Восточной Европе и окончанием холодной войны. В это время СССР перестал смотреть на отношения с окружающим миром через призму противостояния социалистической и капиталистической систем. СССР также перестал навязывать другим странам свою модель развития. В то же время, СССР и США начали стремиться к улучшению отношений друг между другом. С западной точки зрения, Горбачев помог наладить отношения Советского Союза с западом и положить конец холодной войне. Однако, с российской точки зрения, многие связывают распад Советского Союза с западной политикой Горбачева. Сложно объективно определить, что считается достижениями и что ошибками, потому что существуют различные точки зрения.

Отношения между США и СССР начали улучшаться вскоре после того, как Горбачев стал генеральным секретарем в марте 1985 года. Первая встреча на высшем уровне между Рональдом Рейганом (1911-2004) и Горбачевым состоялась в Женеве в ноябре 1985 года. В октябре следующего года президенты обсудили вопросы сокращения стратегических вооружений в Рейкьявике, однако не достигли значительного прогресса. В декабре 1987 года Рейган и Горбачев

подписали Договор о промежуточных ядерных вооружениях, ликвидирующий все ракеты средней и малой дальности (договор о РСМД, INF Treaty) в Европы. В апреле 1988 года Афганистан и Пакистан подписали соглашение с Соединенными Штатами и Советским Союзом, способствующее выводу советских войск из Афганистана к февралю 1989 года. Впоследствии Советский Союз объявил окончательный срок вывода войск.

Решение Советского Союза о выводе войск из Афганистана имело позитивное влияния на международные отношения с другими странами. Для многих в Советском Союзе и в Соединенных Штатах советская война в Афганистане казалась войной, которая никогда не закончится. Внутри Советского Союза большинство людей не поддерживали эту войну, потому что большое количество советских солдат погибало или было ранено. Наконец, спустя десять лет СССР решил вывести войска из Афганистана. В Соединенных Штатах это считалось победой, поскольку США финансировали моджахедов. Как ни странно, война США в Афганистане все еще продолжается, несмотря на шестнадцать лет боевых действий и более 22 000 жертв (Рафферти).

Горбачев также желал установить более тесные отношения с Китаем (Гос. Деп. США Горбачев). Улучшение китайско-советских отношений долгое время зависело от решения ряда вопросов, в том числе поддержки вьетнамского военного присутствия в Камбодже, советской оккупации Афганистана и большого количества советских войск и вооружений, развернутых вдоль северной границы Китая. Попытки СССР решить эти вопросов заставили китайское правительство согласиться на встречу на высшем уровне с Горбачевым в Пекине в 1989 года, первую после китайско-советского раскола в 1950-х годах.

Советские отношения с Европой также улучшились в период Горбачева, главным образом из-за договора о ликвидации ракет средней и меньшей дальности (РСМД) и конца коммунистических правительств в Восточной Европе в конце 90-х годов. После советской аннексии

Чехословакии в 1968 году Советский Союз придерживался доктрины Брежнева, поддерживающей существующий порядок в социалистических государствах. Первое время нахождения у власти Горбачев придерживался доктрин Брежнева, но в июле 1989 года в своем выступлении перед Советом Европы, Горбачев выступал за «право каждого народа распоряжаться своей судьбой».

В то же время, улучшение в отношениях между США и СССР было отнюдь не простым. Совершённая в 1991 году попытка Советского Союза уладить иракско-кувейтский конфликт угрожала нарушением требования союзнической коалиции (США) о безоговорочном выводе Иракских войск из Кувейта. Не желание СССР признать независимости стран Балтики в январе 1991 года также замедлило улучшение отношений с США.

Однако к лету 1991 года отношения между США и Советским Союзом опять стали улучшаться. Одним из величайших дипломатических достижений в период горбачевской перестройки стала ратификация договора СНВ. В июле 1991 года Джордж Буш первый (1924-настоящее время) и Горбачев встретились в Москве, чтобы подписать Договор о сокращении стратегических наступательных вооружений (СНВ, START treaty). В соответствии с СНВ, впервые было отменено большое количество межконтинентальных баллистических ракет. Договор предусматривал сокращение примерно на 35 процентов количества боеголовок баллистических ракет в Соединенных Штатах и на 50 процентов в СССР в течение семи лет после ратификации договора.

Более того, в последние дни Советского союза были установлены дипломатические отношения с Саудовской Аравией, Южной Кореей, и Израиль (Зонова). За усилия по сокращению напряженности во всем мире Горбачёв был награжден Нобелевской премией мира в 1990 году.

Некоторые считают, что внешняя политика Горбачёва и далее Ельцин была неправильной и неудачной для России, что правительство не было готово к этому новому открытию. В этот период социализм был заменён на капитализм. Правительство перестало финансировать такие культурные учреждения, как музеи и театры, но в то же время построило магазины.

Цитаты:

Т.В. Зонова. Дипломатия: Модели, Формы, методы: Учебник для вузов. «Аспект Пресс», 2017. Выпуск.

Рафферти, Андру. «Война в Афганистане: По Цифры» NBCNews.com

«Универсалная Группа НБС Новости», 22 август. 2017 Веб-сайт.

Гос. Департамент США. Афганистан: информационный бюллетень. «Гос. Департамент США», 3 январь 2017. Веб-сайт.

Гос. Департамент США. Горбачев и Перестройка. «Гос. Департамент США», 4 май 2015. Веб-сайт.

Роль и значение отечественных и иностранных дипломатов революционных событиях 1917-го года

Московский государственный институт международных отношений (университет) Министерства иностранных дел Российской Федерации

Кафедра дипломатии

Тема: «Роль и значение отечественных и иностранных дипломатов революционных событиях 1917-го года»

Москва 2017 год

Революция в России в 1917 году уничтожила царское самодержавие и привела к созданию Советского Союза. Российская империя рухнула с отречением императора Николая II, а старый режим был заменен Временным правительством во время первой революции февраля 1917 года. Временное правительство, было признано 9 марта 1917 году США, а немного позднее, 16 марта, Великобритания, Германия и Италия тоже признали новое временное правительство. Во время второй революции в октябре 1917 года было свергнуто Временное правительство, и вся власть была отдана Советам. В результате многие правительственные организации Российской империи распались или были уничтожены. В отличие от других правительственных организаций, которые развалились, министерство иностранных дел продолжало работать в привычном ритме.

Многие российские дипломаты остались на своих должностях, потому что им нравилась работа, и они также не хотели рисковать, возвращаясь в страну в разгар революции. Некоторые дипломаты поддерживали падение российской монархии, в то время как другие выступали против него. Посольства Российской империи оставались открытыми во время революционных событиях 1917-го года. Посольства Российской империи стали новыми посольствами временного правительства и, в конечном итоге, дипломатическими представительствами Советского Союза. Например, нынешняя резиденция российского посла в Вашингтоне, расположенная на 1125 16th Street, была построена в 1910 году и была посольством Российской империи в Соединенных Штатах перед русской революцией. Впериод с 1917 по 1933 год здание находилось во владении различных российских дипломатов. В 1933 году, после установления дипломатических отношений между Советским Союзом и США, здание было передано в распоряжение Советского правительства. Аналогичная ситуация сложилась и в посольстве России в Лондоне. Посольство Российской империи находилось на Чесем-Плейс, Белгравия. Российские дипломаты продолжали работать в посольстве во время русской революции. Затем собственность была унаследована Советским Союзом в 1924 году.

Большая часть дипломатических представительств российской империи в зарубежных странах была в конечном счете унаследована Советским Союзом. Российские дипломаты позаботились о дипломатической собственности в зарубежных странах, пока не установились отношения между Советским Союзом и страной, в которой были расположены объекты.

Большинство российских дипломатов в столице и заграничных представительствах оставались на своих постах, и спокойно встретили свержение монархии во время русской революции, за исключением посла России в США Георгия Петровича Бахметева (1847-1928). Бахметев оставался на своём посту, поскольку считал это своим долгом по отношению к императору. Сначала он решил остаться на своем посту считая, что народ призовёт царя обратно. В его телеграмме к Временному правительству в 1917 г. Георгий Петрович Бахметев заявляет о причине его отставки. Он говорил что, Временное правительство выдумывает одну причину за другой, чтобы отсрочить созыв Учредительного собрания, готовя Россию к республиканскому правлению. Бахметев не хотел «участвовать впредь в этом обмане» и подает в отставку (Абрикосов). Более того, Бахметев имел плохие личные отношения с новым министром иностранных дел Временного правительства, П. Н. Милюковым. После того как Бахметев подал в отставку в 1917 году, он остался с женой в Вашингтоне, но потом переехал в Париж в 1920 году.

Павел Николаевич Милюков (1859 – 1943) был русским историком и либеральным политиком. Он был главой министерства иностранных дел во времена Временного правления с марта по май 1917 года. После отречения Николая II во время Февральской революции, Милюков был членом Временного комитета Государственной думы, выступал за сохранение в стране конституционной монархии, однако большинство лидеров Прогрессивного блока высказались против. Одним из первых приказов Милюкова в качестве министра иностранных дел было поручение российским посольствам помочь вернуть эмигрантов-революционеров в Россию.

Спустя всего 2 месяца главой министерства иностранных дел был назначен Михаил Иванович Терещенко (1886 – 1956). Новый министр сохранил некоторую преемственность внешнеполитической программы правительства, но широко пользовался революционной, социалистической риторикой.

Многие иностранные дипломаты были в России во времена русской революции. Посол США в России Дэвид Р. Фрэнсис (1850-1927) находился в Москве во время революции. Дэвид Р. Фрэнсис попросил правительство США официально признать временное правительство в 1917 году. 9 марта 1917 он получил разрешение признать новое правительство России, тем самым сделав Соединенные Штаты первым иностранным правительством, которое официально признало Временное правительство.

В октябре 1917 года Владимир Ленин, вернувшийся в Россию из ссылки в Германии, помог радикальным большевистским рабочим комитетам Петрограда свергнуть временное правительство. Временное правительство сдалось без боя, оставив большевистскую партию рабочих и крестьян, находящихся у власти. В ноябре 1917 г. Лев Давидович Троцкий (1879-1940) заменил Tерещенко, и стал Народным комиссаром по иностранным делам.

Президент Вудро Вильсон (1856-1921) дал указание американским дипломатам отказать в официальном и неофициальном признании нового большевистского правительства (Garrett). Посол США Дэвид Фрэнсис оставался в России до ноября 1918 года, и не был заменен. 14 сентября 1919 года посольство США в России было закрыто. Соединенные Штаты не восстанавливали дипломатических отношений с Советским Союзом до 1933 года.

Новый советский режим одним декретом перевернул устройство старой царской дипломатической службы и уволил всех сотрудников. Не смотря на то, что дореволюционный МИД больше не существовал, попытки построить внешнюю политику на идеях “мировой революции” не стали практичными и новый советский МИД использовал принципы и образцы царской русской дипломатии для построении и воссоздании советского МИДа.

Российские дипломаты, которые были частью Министерства иностранных дел во времена Российской империи, не повлияли на изменение курса русской революции 1917 года. Многие из российских послов и дипломатов в зарубежных странах были частью богатой аристократической элиты. В конечном итоге они не оказали существенного влияния на исход русской революции. Большинство из них решили остаться на своих должностях, а не возвращаться в страну в разгар революции, которая не благоволила благородной элите.

Цитаты

Абрикосов Д. И. Судьба русского дипломата. Русский путь, 2008. Стр. 312.

Кузнецов, А И, et al. История Дипломатии России . том 1, МГИМО, 2017.

Garrett, Amy C. “Highlights in the History of U.S. Relations With Russia, 1780-June 2006.” U.S. Department of State, U.S. Department of State, 11 May 2007

 

The French Revolution

Terms

Louis XVI: the king of France from 1774-1792 who was overthrown and eventually executed during the French Revolution

Jacques Necker: the royal director general of finances under Louis XVI whose financial report revealed that a large portion of royal expenditures went to pensions for aristocrats

Estates General: a medieval legislative assembly of the different estates of French society that was called in 1789 to address the financial crisis

First Estate: the social class in Old Regime France that was made up of the clergy

Second Estate: the social class in Old Regime France that was made up of the nobility

Third Estate: the social class in Old Regime France that was made up of wealthy members of the commercial and professional middle classes as well as peasants and the urban poor

Cahiers de doleances: lists of grievances that were brought by representatives of the estates to the Estates General; included criticisms of government waste, indirect taxes, and church corruption

National Assembly: the new legislative body created by the members of the Third Estate and eventually joined by the Second Estate and some priests

Tennis Court Oath: the pledge that the members of the National Assembly took to continue to meet until they had a written constitution for France

Bastille: the medieval fortress and political prison in Paris that was stormed by angry protesters on July 14, 1789

The Great Fear: the name of the event in which peasants in the countryside destroyed the property of the nobility and attempted to take possession of the land

The Night of August 4, 1789: the name of the event in which members of the nobility and clergy rose in the National Assembly and renounced their rights and privileges; afterwards, all French citizens were subject to the same and equal laws

Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen: a statement of broad political principles issued by the National Constituent Assembly in August 1789; these included the natural rights of liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression, as well as equal rights under the law, due process of law, and freedom of religion

Parisian Women’s March on Versailles: the name of the event in October 1789 in which thousands of Parisian women marched to Versailles and demanded that the king and queen move back to Paris

Chapelier Law: a law passed by the Assembly in June 1791 that banned worker’s associations

Civil Constitution of the the Clergy: a law passed by the Assembly in July 1790 that transformed the Roman Catholic Church into a branch of the secular state and provided for the election of pastors and bishops, who became employees of the state

Emigres: the name for aristocrats who left France during the French Revolution and sought to encourage counterrevolution

Jacobins: the radical political group during the French Revolution that drew their political language from the most radical thought of the Enlightenment, including Rousseau’s thoughts on equality and civic virtue; they called for a republic rather than a constitutional monarchy

Girondists: a less radical offshoot of the Jacobins that sought war with Austria in order to preserve the revolution and decrease the king’s power

Sans-Culottes: the radical political group made up of urban shopkeepers, artisans, and wage earners that sought economic relief and a radical republican form of government

Edmund Burke: the British statesman who condemned the French Revolution and predicted much of the turmoil and violence that was yet to come in France

Reign of Terror: the phase of the French Revolution in which thousands of people from all walks of life were arrested and executed in an effort to protect the revolution and silence dissent

Committee of Public Safety: the revolutionary committee that saw its job as saving the revolution from enemies at home and abroad; the committee came to be dominated by Robespierre, who enjoyed almost dictatorial powers

Maximilian Robespierre: the person who emerged as the dominant figure on the Committee of Public Safety and who oversaw the Reign of Terror and the executions of thousands of French citizens in the name of defending the revolution

Law of 22 Prarial: the revolutionary law that permitted the revolutionary tribunal to convict suspects without hearing substantial evidence against them

Thermidorian Reaction: the phase of the French Revolution in which the Reign of Terror was brought to an end and those responsible for it were removed from power and the Jacobin club was closed

5 Person Directory: the executive body that was created by the Constitution of the Year III

Questions

How was the Estates General transformed into the National Assembly?

The Estates General transformed into the National Assembly because of the cahiers de doleances. For many weeks, the Third Estate held a standoff because they did not want to be a separate order. On June 1, the Third Estate brought several nobles and priests with them to form a new legislative body called the National Assembly. On June 19, the Second Estate also voted to join the Assembly.

How does the Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen reflect the social and political values of the 18th-century Enlightenment?

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen reflects the 18th-century values of the Enlightenment through its political language. Rousseau believed that women and men should inhabit different spheres. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen clearly outlined that men were made for citizenship and women were destined for motherhood and the domestic life. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen drew directly from Rousseau’s Enlightenment ideas of different jobs for each gender.

Why has the Civil Constitution been called the major blunder of the National Constituent Assembly?

The Civil Constitution of the Clergy was the major blunder of the National Constituent Assembly. The Constitution transformed the Roman Catholic Church of France into a secular state and made bishops salaried employees of that state. The number of bishops drastically decreased. It worsened relations between the French Church and the new secular state. The Assembly required all the clergy to obey the constitution but only 7 bishops and less than half of the clergy did so. The Assembly removed those who did not from their positions.

What was the revolution of 1792 and why did it occur?

The revolution of 1792, or more commonly the Second Revolution, was a series of riots and uprisings by the bourgeoisie. On the 10th of August, 1792, the crowds ran over the Swiss Guards guarding the Tuileries Palace and nearly killed Marie Antoinette and Louis XVI. The uprisings were caused because of the outrageous food shortages, the ongoing political conflict, and the monarchy’s neglect for their people.

Who were the sans-culottes and how did they become a factor in the politics of the period?

The sans-culottes were shopkeepers, artisans, wage earners, and factory workers. This group was more radical than the Jacobins and the Girondists. Their already difficult lives became harder because of the constant food shortages and the revolutionary inflation. They were anti-monarchy and strongly republican. Their influence was most important in Paris where they gained experience in the meetings of the Paris sections. Their work eventually overthrew the monarchy.

Why did the sans-culottes and the Jacobins cooperate at first?

The Jacobins and the sans-culottes cooperated at first because they wanted to overthrow the monarchy. These extreme Jacobins were called the Mountain because their seats were high up in Assembly Hall. They were more willing to cooperate with these popular forces than the Girondists were.

Why did France go to war with Austria in 1792?

Revolutionaries believed that war would unify France and was an effective way to spread the ideas of revolution throughout France. The Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria in 1792. They did poorly at first but became successful as the war progressed.

What were the drawbacks and benefits for France fighting an external war in the midst of a domestic political revolution?

France was not prepared for such a quick and unexpected war. Their unprepared French forces proved to be too weak for the Austrian military. Louis XVI was believed to be a part of a conspiracy with Prussia and Austria.

What were the causes of the terror?

The Terror was caused by fear. The French people understood that the new social order put the achievements of the revolution in danger. To stop the fight from going to waste, the politicians silenced the people through terror.

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

This study guide was contributed by Sofia K.

If you feel like any information be added to the site please let me know or if you would like to send in one of your study guides send it to modeurostud@gmail.com

Thanks,

-X

 

 

Political Experiments of the 1920s

TERMS 

Normalcy- normalcy is a term which describes the state of life before 1914. Many politicians wanted to bring back a sense of normalcy back to their countries after WW1 but what had been “normal” in economic and social life before 1914 could not be reestablished.

Great Depression- The Great Depression was a  a worldwide economic downturn that began with the collapse of the New York Stock Exchange in 1929. During the Great Depression unemployment rates soared and many people starved.

Weimar Republic- A democratic German republic that came to power in 1918 embodying the hopes of German liberals. It lasted from the end of WW1 and Hitler’s coming to power in 1933.

Sinn Fein- is an Irish republican political party. In 1922 Sinn Fein helped Ireland achieve its independence.

Popular Front- the Popular Front was a government of all left wing parties that took power in France in 1936 to enact social and economic reforms.

War Communism- War Communism refers to a policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Revolution to seize the banks, heavy industry, railroads, and farms.

New Economic Policy- The New Economic Policy was a program introduced by Lenin in 1921 which permitted private economic enterprises except in banking, heavy industry, transportation, and international commerce. The NEP was designed to please the peasants whom Lenin believed held the key to a successful revolution. The NEP helped free enterprise and helped establish secure food supply to cities.

The Third International/Comintern

Collectivization- Collectivization refers to a policy during the Soviet Union. The goal of collectivization was to consolidate the individual land and labour in to collective farms for the good of the state.

Great Purges- The Great Purges in the Soviet Union was the arrest ad expulsion of thousands of Russians and Ukrainians during 1934-1940. Began as a result of the assassination of Sergei Kirov in December of 1934.

Fascism- Fascism is a system of extreme right wing dictatorial government. A key part of fascism is extreme nationalism. Both Italy and Germany were fascist states during the 1930s until the end of WWII.

Benito Mussolini- Benito Mussolini (1922-1945) was the leader of the National Fascist Party of Italy from 1922 to 1945. He ruled constitutionally until 1925 when he dropped the democratic government and set up a legal dictatorship.

Black Shirt March- The Black Shirt March was a march which Italian fascist Benito Mussolini and the National Fascist Party came to power in Italy in 1922.

Lateran Accord, 1929- was an agreement between Benito Mussolini and the Roman Catholic Church. In February of 1929 the Roman Catholic Church and Benito Mussolini made peace with each other. Ever since the armies of the Italian unification had seized papal lands in the 1860s, the church had a contentious relationship with the state.

The Ruhr Invasion- The Ruhr Invasion was the French invasion of the German territory of the Ruhr in order to secure the payment of WW1 reparations. The German response of passive economic resistance produced cataclysmic inflation.

Nazis/SA- Nazis or National Socialists are followers of the German Nazi Party and State.  The SA or Sturmabteilung were members of the Nazi party who helped secure the power of the National Socialists in Germany. They would disrupt meetings of opposing parties and would intimidate non-supporters.

Article 48- Article 48 was a law written in the constitution of the Weimar Republic which under certain circumstances the president could rule by decree. The constitution thus permitted the possibility of presidential dictatorship.

Adolf Hitler – Mein KampfMein Kampf (My Struggle) is an autobiographical manifesto published by Adolf Hitler in 1926. It was a strategy dictated by Adolf Hitler during his period of imprisonment in 1923, outlining his political views.

Storm Troopers – Ernest Röhm- Ernst Röhm (1887-1934) was a German officer who was a cofounder of the Sturmabteilung or SA. He was a member of the Nazi party but was executed on Adolf Hitler and Heinrich Himmler’s orders as a potential rival.

Gustave Stressemann Gustave Stressemann (1878-1929) was a German politician and Foreign Minister of the Weimar Republic from 1923-1929.

 

The Dawes Plan- the Dawes Plan was an attempt in 1924 to solve the war reparations problem which encompassed international politics following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles. The plan was for the Allies to pay 2.6 billion dollars of War Debt to the United States. The United States would give Germany 2.5 Billion dollars in loans in which Germany would pay 2.0 Billion to the Allies.

Locarno Agreements- the Locarno Agreements were an attempt to normalize relations with Germany after WWI.

The Young Plan- the Young Plan was a a replacement of the Dawes Plan that ran out in 1929. The Young Plan lowered the cost of reparation payments, put a term on how long they must be made, and removed Germany entirely from outside supervision and control.

Kristallnacht- Kristallnacht was increased persecution of German Jews in 1938. In November of 1938, under orders from the Nazi Party, thousands of Jewish stores and synagogues were burned or destroyed. The Kristallnacht meaning “crystal night” because of the broken glass that littered German streets after the looting and destruction of Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues.

Nazi Economic Policy- Nazi economic policies supported private property and private capitalism but subordinated all significant economic enterprise and decisions about prices and investment.

Thomas Masaryk- Thomas Masaryk (1850-1937) was a Czechoslovak politician who was a devout supporter of Czechoslovakian independence. After WWI he became the founder and first President of Czechoslovakia.

Bela Kun- Bela Kun (1886-1938) was a Hungarian revolutionary who led the Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919.

Admiral Miklos Horthy- Miklos Horthy (1868-1957) was a Hungarian Admiral who served as regent of the Kingdom of Hungary between WWI and WWII. Worthy led a conservative nationalist government.

QUESTIONSBulletin points or outline notes.

1. What caused the Great Depression? Why was it more severe and why did it last longer than previous economic downturns? Could it have been avoided?

Causes of Great Depression

*Stock Market Crash of 1929

*Bank Failures

*Margin Buying

*Decline in consumer demand

*American Economic Policy with Europe

*Poor agricultural conditions

 

The economic depression of 1929 was more severe and lasted much longer than previous economic downturns because it it affected a greater percentage of the of the population than any other economic downturn had before. The Great depression persisted throughout the 1930s. The Great Depression may have been avoided, but also at this time the concept of Margin buying and the large percentage of the population which was buying shares in the stock market both helped lead to the Great depression.

2. How did Stalin achieve supreme power in the Soviet Union? Why did he decide that Russia had to industrialize rapidly? Why did this require the collectivization of agriculture? Was the policy a success? How did it affect the Russian people? Why did Stalin carry out the purges?

Stalin came fom a poor family and had not, unlike previous Bolshevik leaders, sent time in western Europe. He was much less intellectual and he was much more brutal. Stalin was no a brilliant writer or an effective public speaker, but he was a master of the crucial details of party structure. He used his power over admission to the party and promotion to select those he trusted. Stalin collectivized farms and agriculture in Russia so that the country could have a reliable source of food to fuel it’s industrial economy. The policy of collectivization was a success for cities in Russia because it gave them a stable source of food but as a result many people in rural areas died from starvation. Farmers who had once owned the land, now had to give a majority of their crop production to the state. As a result of the mass purges and collectivization in Russia, many Russian citizens died. Stalin carried out the mass purges because he was paranoid. Anyone in power or who had an education, could be arrested and sent to Siberia if Stalin or the Checka suspected them of being an enemy of the state. Stalin employed scare tactics to seize power in Russia.

3. Why was Italy dissatisfied and unstable after WWI? How did Mussolini achieve power? What were the characteristics of the Fascist state?

Post WWI Italian politics were in shambles. The Italian Parliament had virtually ceased to function during the war, and many Italians were disillusioned with their leaders, whom they believed had failed to win Italy its fair share and the Treaty of Versailles. Between 1919 and 1921, Italy experienced considerable internal turmoil. There were industrial strikes, workers occupied factories, peasants seized uncultivated land from large estates, and the national parliament could not do much for the state of the country. The first of Mussolini’s supporters were WWI Italian veterans many of whom believed the Paris peace conference had cheated Italy of territory it rightfully deserved. Initially Mussolini was attracted to socialism, but soon his political views shifted. Mussolini was an opportunist and he changed his ideas and principle to suit every new occasion. On November 23, 1922 King Victor Emmanuel III and Parliament commissioned him to restore order and granted Mussolini dictatorial authority for one year. In Fascist Italy, Fascists ran the police force, and fascist terrorist groups became a government militia. Many Italians tolerated and even admired Mussolini, for they believed he had saved them from Bolshevism. Anyone who dared to oppose Mussolini were exiled or killed.

 

4. Why did the Weimar Republic collapse in Germany? How did Hitler come to power? Which groups in Germany supported Hitler and why were they pro-Nazi? How did he consolidate his power? Why was anti-Semitism central to Nazi policy?

The Weimar Republic, which took its name from the city in which its constitution was written in August of 1919, embodied the hopes of German liberals. The Weimar Republic was ruled by the Social democrats, a party which came to power after the abdication of Kaiser William II. The Weimar Republic was a young democracy which had it’s flaws. In the constitution of the Weimar Republic, there was a law that gave the chancellor dictatorial leadership in times that threatened the nation. Hitler came to power by luck and by exploiting the one law in the constitution that allowed the chancellor to rule by dictatorship in times that threatened the state. Hitler came to power when Germany was at its weakest. There was mass inflation and political turmoil. Hitler wanted to get rid of democracy because it was not working in Germany. In the early 1930s, Germany had 37 different political parties. With the help of the Sturmabteilung (SA), and other political figures, Hitler eventually came to power. Anti-Semitism was central to Nazi policy because Hitler had a grand vision of an aryan race. He thought that if he could genetically select certain traits, Germany as a whole would benefit.

5. What was fascism? How and why did the fascists obtain power in Italy? To whom did they appeal? What were the differences between the fascist dictatorship of Mussolini and the communist dictatorship of Stalin? What was the status of women under these regimes?

Fascism is extreme nationalism combined with some facets socialism. The Fascists obtained power in Italy by intimidating other political groups. They formed local squads of terrorists who disrupted Socialist Party meetings, beat up socialist leaders, and intimidating socialist supporters. By early 1922, intimidation and won fascist control of local governments across most of northern Italy, and in 1921, Italian voters sent Mussolini and thirty-four of his followers to the national Chamber of Deputies. In Russia, Stalin was a paranoid leader who exiled or executed anyone suspected of plotting against him. Stalin is known for killing millions of his own countrymen in the mass purges. Mussolini also employed intimidation to maintain his power but not the the same extent of killing millions of his own people. Mussolini did kill political prisoners but not to the same extent. In Russia, women had equal roles to that of men. Women were seen as equal and they were put into Russian high command as well. Women were also seen as child bearers who contributed to the good of the state by having many children. In Italy the role of women changed from being a tool of procreation to managing the family economy both agriculturally and industrially. During WWII women’s roles were to raise children and work in factories while the men waged war.

While Mussolini was in power, abortion was banned. The Fascists established Mother’s day and made childbearing a honorable deed for the good of the state.

6. What characteristics did the authoritarian regimes in the Soviet Union, Italy, and Germany have in common? What role did terror play in each?

All of the authoritarian regimes in the Soviet Union, Italy, and Germany believed that if united under nationalism and a strong central government they could be successful states. They all spread propaganda through their country to help support the cause of the state. All of these powers also gave more rights to women. They made childbearing an honorable deed for the good of the state. All of the countries spread nationalism as a tool to get support for the country. These nations also industrialized rapidly before WWII.  In all of the nations, terror played a large role in the rise to power of their authoritative leaders. Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini all killed or exiled their competitors. They used terror as a tool to intimidate their countrymen and keep power over them.

7. Why did liberal democracy fail in the successor states of Eastern Europe?

Democracy failed in the successor states of Eastern Europe because they were weaker countries with young, untested democracies and inexperienced politicians. Parliamentary governments failed in most of the easter European states set up after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. These young successor states laced the economic base and the history of a democracy to be successful. The new states were no financially independent. The Eastern European states were poor, rural, and unindustrialized. Each of the Eastern European states had at least one minority ethnic groups living within their new arbitrary borders. The combination of an economic depression, miscalculated borders, and weak democracy led to the failure of Eastern European states after WWI.

Sources 

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

this study guide is better than the last few. but like I said pls don’t just copy this at least type it out!

Russian Revolution “Русская революция”

TERMS

Dual Alliance 1879 Germany & Austria- the dual alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria. The agreement was that both nations agreed to help one another in case of an attack by Russia.

Triple Alliance  1882 Italy, Germany, Austria- the Triple Alliance of 1882 lasted until WWI in 1914. It was a military alliance among Germany, Austria, and Italy.

Kaiser William II- Kaiser William II (1859-1941) was the ruler of Germany from 1888 to 1918.

Franco-Russian Alliance – 1890- military alliance between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire which lasted from 1892 to 1917.

Kruger Telegram- the Kruger telegram was a message sent by Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II to the president of the Transvaal Republic in 1896.

Entente Cordial- The Entente Cordial was a series of agreements which aligned Britain and France together before WWI

First Moroccan Crisis 1905- The First Moroccan Crisis also known as the Tangier crisis was an international crisis between 1905 and 1906 over the status of the Morocco.

Russo-British Alliance- 1907- The Russo British alliance was a military alliance between Russia and Britain in 1907.

Bosnian Crisis 1908- the Bosnian crisis was when Austria announced the annexations of Bosnia and Herzegovina territories in 1908.

Second Moroccan Crisis 1911- the Second Moroccan Crisis 1911 was internationall tension sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of the Moroccan 1911.

Balkan Wars- the Balkan Wars were a series of conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula from 1912 to 1913.

June 28, 1914/Sarajevo- was the date Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo.

Blank Check- was a check with no numerical value written in. It describes the war reparations Germany must pay for after the war.

Schlieffen Plan- was a tactical plan to invade France.

Battle of Tannenberg- was an engagement between Russia and Germany in the early stages of the war. The battle resulted in a large destruction of the the Russian Army.

Central Powers- the Central Powers included but were not limited to Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire.

Allies- the Allies Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States.

Trench Warfare- Trench Warfare was a new type of warfare fought in the trenches.

Lusitania- the Lusitania was a ship that the Germans sank with their submarine. This led to one of the factors that got the United States involved in WWI.

Provisional Government- the Provision Government was a government that was ruled by the Duma in 1917.

October Revolution- October was a revolution in Russia that occurred in 1917.

White Russians- White Russians were the Russians who supported the rule of the king and did not support the Revolution.

Fourteen Points- The Fourteen Points was a document drafted by Woodrow Willson to help deal with the situation in Europe after WWI

Versailles- The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty that ended WWI.

War Guilt Clause 231- also known as Article 231, sets the blame of WWI entirely on Germany.

Reparations- were the payments from Germany to the rest of Europe to help pay for the cost and damage from the war.

Economic Consequences of the Peace – J.M. Keynes- is a book published by J.M. Keynes which describes the economic consequences after WWI and the treaty of Versailles.

 

QUESTIONS  

1. What role in the world did Bismarck envisage for the new Germany after 1871? How successful was he in carrying out his vision? What was Bismarck’s attitude toward colonies?  Was he wise to tie Germany to Austria-Hungary?

Bismarck was successful in making Germany a united power in Europe. Bismarck did not want colonies he just wanted german speakers in his lands. He was wise to tie Germany to Austria Hungary.

2. Why and in what stages did Britain abandon its policy of “splendid isolation” at the turn of the century? Were the policies it pursued instead wise ones? Or should Britain have followed a different course altogether?

Britain abandoned its policy of isolation because it eventually had to deal with problems in Europe. The policies that Britain followed were wise. Britain followed a good course during the 1910s and 1920s.

3. How did developments in the Balkans lead to the outbreak of WWI? What was the role of Serbia? Of Austria? Of Russia?  What was the aim of German policy in July 1914? Did Germany want a general war?

In the Balkans nationalism helped instigate WWI. All of these nations wanted different goals for the good of their own states. Germany did not want a general war.

4. Why did Germany lose WWI? Could Germany have won, or was victory never a possibility? Assess the settlement of Versailles.  What were its benefits to Europe, and what were its drawbacks? Was the settlement too harsh or too conciliatory?  Could it have secured lasting peace in Europe?  How might it have been improved?

Germany lost WWI because it did not have good military tactics and it got the United States involved. The Treaty of Versailles was not good for Germany. The settlement did not take in account various factors in Europe. The Treaty had the potential of creating lasting peace, but as a result it directly started WWII.

5. Why was Lenin successful in establishing Bolshevik rule in Russia? What role did Trotsky play?  Was it wise policy for Lenin to take Russia out of the war?

Lenin was successful in establishing Bolshevik rule in Russia. Trotsky was a rival to Lenin. It was wise to take Russia out of the war because they were undergoing a revolution. Although they lost territory, it could be argued that they would have lost those territories anyway because the territories they lost were not technically Russian regions.

 

Sources 

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

Dang, those were some short essays… guess it means more work for you.

-X

Imperialism

TERMS 

Imperialism- Policy of expanding a nation’s power by seeking hegemony over alien peoples.

The Jewel in the Crown- India was “the jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, its most profitable and valuable possession.

Sepoy Rebellion 1857- the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 was a mutiny of Indian soldiers against the East India Company’s army on May 10, 1857. The rebellion was brutally suppressed. The British had a significant advantage because of their superior weaponry.

Protectorates-

Spheres of Influence- A sphere of Influence is an economic and politically controlled area of one nation.

J.A. Hobson- John Atkinson Hobson (1858-1940) was an English economist and writer. Hobson was known as a critic of imperialism.

‘civilizing mission’- The ‘civilizing mission’ was the belief that it was Europeans’ duty to civilize indigenous Africans. European confidence in their superiority made them energetic, self righteous, expansionists.

“Scramble for Africa”- The scramble for Africa was as a result of New Imperialism. Before 1880, European presence in Africa was largely the result of coastal exploration by early explorers who did not penetrate inland.  By 1914 however, the occupying powers included most large European countries.

Suez Canal- The Suez Canal was finished in 1869. It stimulated British interest in Africa because the canal shortened the distance by ship between Africa and India.

King Leopold II- King Leopold II (1835-1909) was the king of Belgium and is primarily remembered for founding the Congo Free State.

Great Trek/Boers- The Great Trek was a north eastward emigration of the Dutch Boers as a result of the British rule in South Africa.

Apartheid- was a system of racial segregation in South Africa.

The Boxer Rebellion- The Boxer Rebellion was an anti Imperialist movement in China from 1899-1901.

“Tools” of imperialism- European nations used many methods of expanding their spheres of influence during the age of Imperialism. Europe’s power was bassoon the progress it made during the second industrial revolution in science, technology, industry, agriculture, communications, and weaponry.  The earlier for of imperialism involved seizing land and resettling it with the conquerer;s people or controlling trade to exploit the resources of a dominated area. The New Imperialism employed this method and introduced new ones as well. A European nation often began by investing capital in a foreign region to develop its mines and agriculture, railroads, and harbors.

QUESTIONS  

1. How did European imperial interests shift geographically in the nineteenth century? How was free trade related to the expansion of European influence around the globe?

European imperial interests shifted geographically as a result of economic and political motives. European nations shifted away from colonialism towards imperialism because they saw the economic benefits associated with imperialism. A need for martkts and raw materials does not adequately explain the New Imperialism of the late 19th century. Some politicians hoped that imperialism would steer public interest from domestic problems. Some social reformers hoped to use colonies to relieve population pressures in Europe (Australia).

2. How was New Imperialism different from free-trade imperialism? Why was Britain the dominant world power until the late 19th century?

New Imperialism was different from free trade imperialism in many ways. Firstly free trade imperialism means that a country conquerer and rules over other reigns. Imperialism means creating an empire, and expanding onto the neighboring regions. Britain was the dominant power because of its large sphere of influence. Britain was able to achieve its large sphere of influence as a result of its large, powerful, and technologically advanced navy.

3. What were the Opium Wars?

The Opium Wars was a war fought between China and Britain over conflicting viewpoints over the sale of opium. Britain wanted access to China’s raw materials and in return would sell the Chinese opium. The Chinese government disapproved over this and thus created a war.

4. Describe British rule in India from 1857 to WWI? Why was India so important to Britain?

Britain wanted India because of its natural resources. India also provided Britain a central economic and military base for all relations in Asia. India was a huge economic investment. The British spent lots of money and time to conquer India. As a result the British controlled a large wealthy area of land with many natural resources.

There is supposed to be a chart here…..

5. Why did missionary efforts expand in the nineteenth century? Why was the relationship between Western missionaries and colonial officials so complicated? Why did Africans want to found their own churches? How has the spread of Christianity in the non-Western world affected the Christian churches?

Missionaries wanted to expand in the 19th century because they believed they had a duty to extend the benefits of their superior civilization to less technologically advanced people. Africans wanted to found their own churches because they felt discriminated by Europeans who lived in Africa. The spread of Christianity affected many other religions. The spread of Christianity in the non-Western world also helped Christian churches.

6. How did Westerners justify imperialism? What was the civilizing mission? What sciences were most associated with the New Imperialism? What role did racism play in the New Imperialism?

Westerners justified imperialism because they believed they had a duty to extend the benefits of their superior civilization to less technologically advanced people. The ‘civilizing mission’ was the belief that it was Europeans’ duty to civilize indigenous Africans. European confidence in their superiority made them energetic, self righteous, expansionists. Racism played a role in New Imperialism. It made some Caucasian Europeans feel superior to Africans.

 

 

 

yeah this is a really short study guide…. didn’t get a 20/20. You definitely need to add to it in order to get 20. Good Luck!

Late 19th Century Europe

TERMS

Second Industrial Revolution- the Second Industrial Revolution, began after 1850,

expanded production of steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil. The development of electrically powered machines had the greats impact of industry on daily life.

petite bourgeoisie- is a French term that describes the white collar social class. The petite bourgeoisie compromised of professions such as shopkeepers, small merchants, school teachers, and librarians. Many of these people had working class origins. All had middle class aspirations.

Napoleon III’s Paris- Napoleon III rebuilt and redesigned Paris. Napoleon III initiated the redesign of Paris and appointed Georges Haussmann from 1853 to 1870 to oversee the city’s reconstruction. Napoleon III created large boulevards and wide streets. This allowed for for quick deployment of troops, and also eliminated narrow streets that people might barricade. During the reconstruction of Paris, sewers were also added to reduce disease.

The Eiffel Tower- the Eiffel Tower was initially built as an entrance arch for the World’s Fair of 1889. It became a symbol of French industrial strength. Many people in Paris wanted to tear it down, but it was later repurposed as a radio tower.

Louis Pasteur- Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was a French chemist known for his discoveries in vaccination, fermentation, and pasteurization. His breakthroughs raised public awareness on sanitation and cleanliness.

Joseph Lister- Joseph Lister (1827-1912) was a British surgeon who pioneered in antiseptic surgery. By applying the methods of Louis Pasteur to surgery, Joseph Lister was able to make surgery much safer for patients.

Married Woman’s Property Act of 1882- The Married Woman’s Property Act of 1882 allowed wives in Britain to own property as individuals. European society was based on private property and wage earning, laws seriously disadvantaged women.

Eduard Manet – A Bar at the Folies Bergere- Eduard Manet (1832-1883) was a French

painter who is know for is impressionistic style. His paining, A Bar at the Folies Bergere is a paining of a woman who is a bartender. The painting shows the woman from two unique angles because there is a mirror behind her. This interesting choice to use a mirror by Manet gives the painting an extra layer.

Mary Wollstonecraft – The Vindication of the Right of Woman- In 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft wrote The Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Mary Wollstonecraft made a case for women’s rights based on the same arguments used for mens rights in the 18th century.

suffragettes- suffragettes was a demeaning name for members of the Women’s Social and Political Union. This group of women lobbied for votes and increased rights for women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Trade Unionism- is an organization of workers in the same field who come together to achieve common goals. Trade unionism flourished during the second half of the century as governments began to recognize the right of workers to organize. All the major industrial countries in Europe allowed Trade Unionism by the late 19th century.

Karl Marx & the First International- In 1864, a group of British and French trade unionists founded the First International. This group encompassed a vast array of radical political types.

Fabian Socialism- Britain’s most influential socialist organization was the Fabian Society. It took its name from the Roman general Fambius Maximus, who was famous for defending Rome from Hannibal in the Second Punic War. Fabian Socialism believed that collective ownership could could solve the problems of industry.

German Social Democratic Party- The German Social Democratic Party also called the SPD emerged in 1875 in response to the inequality of the German working class. The SPD remained a influential group throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The SPD started out as a small political group but then grew into one of Germany’s largest political parties.

Ferdinand Lasalle & Wilhelm Liebknecht- Ferdinand Lasalle (1825-1864) was an activist for labor reform who wanted to win a role for the working class in German politics. The SPD was formed in response to his work. Wilhelm Liebkecht (1826-1900) was a German social democrate who helped organize the SPD.

The Erfurt Program- was formulated in 1891 by the SPD. It’s goal was to create a socialist means of production. It also declared the imminent death of capitalism

Revisionism and Eduard Bernstein- Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) was a German

political theorist and a member of the SPD. Bernstein saw flaws in Marxist thinking and rejected significant parts of Marxist theory. German socialists condemned Bernstein’s views, but the SPD followed Bernstein’s views. Trade unions were prospering and did not want a revolution. The SPD grew in popularity by compromising with different views and soon became one of the most important political organizations in Germany.

Bolsheviks & Mensheviks- Bolsheviks, meaning majority in Russian, was Lenin’s Russian political party which favored elite professionals who would provide the working class with centralized leadership. The Mensheviks, meaning minority in Russian, wanted to create a party with large mass membership, like the SPD in Germany.

Vladimir Lenin- Vladimir Llyich Ulyanov (1870-1924) was a Russian socialist revolutionary, and politician. He was head of the government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 until 1922, and the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1924. Lenin was born to a wealthy family in Simbirsk, Russia.

Revolution of 1905; Bloody Sunday- On January 22, 1905, the tsar’s troops fired onto a crowd of workers in Saint Petersburg who were peacefully protesting for improved working conditions. The incident marked the point at which many Russians decided they could no longer trust the tsar. In October of 1905, strikes broke out in Saint Petersburg, and groups of workers called soviets took control of the city. Nicholas tried to calm the situation down by issuing the October Manifesto, which was a pledge to institute a constitutional government.

Charles Darwin/Social Darwinism- Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was an English naturalist and geologist. In 1859, Darwin published The Origin of Species. It explained a species’ traits are as a result of its past struggles with the environment, not given from a god. A British philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) turned the theory of evolution into a basis for a theory of ethics. Spencer’s argument of Social Darwinism justified the neglect of the poor and the working class, exploitation Native Americans, and the aggressive competition amongst nations.

Kulturkampf- Kulturkampf, cultural struggle in German, was an extreme church versus state conflict waged by Bismarck in Germany during the 1870s.

Rerum Novarum- Rerum Novarum was a papal issued document in 1891, that defended private property, religious education, and religious control of marriage laws. Rerum Novarum also condemned socialism and Marxism.

Impressionism- is a late 19th century art movement that began with a group of painters in

France. Impressionist paintings usually have small, but visible brush strokes.

Friedrich Nietzsche- Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher. His radical ideas questioned value of individuality and morality. “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often and sometimes frightened. But no price is too hight to pay for the privilege of owning yourself” -Nietzsche.

Sigmund Freud- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist, who is known for as the father of psychoanalysis. He denied the existence of God and he though of religion as an interference with nature. He thought that religion enables the weak, and takes pitt on them.

QUESTIONS

1. How was European society transformed by the Second Industrial Revolution? What new industries developed , and which do you think had the greatest impact in the twentieth century? How do you account for European economic difficulties in the second half of the nineteenth century?

European society was transformed in many ways by the Second Industrial Revolution. Industry became even more widespread in Europe. The Bessemer process allowed for stronger, cheaper steel which also led to increased growth. Automobile and electrical machines also were beginning to be developed at this time. The development of electrically powered machines had the greats impact of industry on daily life. Electricity could be used in a variety of different ways and helped industry become more complex. All of these advancements in technology, led to a better standard of living in Europe. While Industry and and agriculture bombed from 1850 to 1870, the end of the century’s economies slowed down. Poor weather and foreign competition created rubles for European farmers. Many workers still lived in difficult conditions. Several large banks in Europe failed in 1873, and the rate of investments slowed which caused some industries to stagnate. However at the very end of the 19th century, consumer demand began to revive the economy.

2. What was the status of women in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century? Why did they grow discontented with their lot? What factors led to change? To what extent had they improved their position by 1914?

In the second half of the 19th century women’s social roles began to change. Women during the 19th century, no matter what their class, were economically deprived and were dependent on their husbands, or family. Mostly all European women could not own property, and did not have the same rights to education, and voting, as men did. Since society at the time in Europe was based on property and wage earning, laws seriously disadvantaged women. Many factors led to change such as new employment opportunities for women. The expansion of the government, and large scale business organizations, like retail stores, gave women more opportunities for work and employment. By 1914, women had improved their position on topics like voting rights and gender equality, but it wasn’t until after World War I, when countries realized the contributions made by women in the War and decided to give them certain rights such as voting.

3. What was the status of the proletariat by 1860? Had it improved by 1914? What caused the growth in trade unions and organized mass political parties? Why were the debates over “opportunism? And “revisionism” important to the western European socialist parties?

The status of the proletariat had changed greatly from 1860 to 1914. In 1860 the proletariat was being exploited by the wealthier classes for their cheap labor. Marx and other socialist philosophers saw this and decided that the proletariate class should come together in order to be stronger. Trade unionism flourished during the second half of the century as governments began to recognize the right of workers to organize. All the major industrial countries in Europe allowed Trade Unionism by the late 19th century. There were debates over opportunism and revisionism because people could not agree on socialistic ideas. Bernstein saw flaws in Marxist thinking and rejected significant parts of Marxist theory. Revisionism was important to because it was in between Marxist ideas and more conservative ideas. German socialists condemned Bernstein’s views, but the SPD followed Bernstein’s views. Trade unions were prospering and did not want a revolution.

4. What were the benefits and drawbacks of industrialization for Russia? Were the tsars wise to attempt to modernize their country, or should they have left it as it was? How did Lenin’s view of socialism differ from that of the socialists in Western Europe?

The benefit of industrialization for Russia was that it gave it strengthened the country as a whole. On the other hand, industrialization weakened the tsar’s power. If it was the tsar’s main goal to hold onto power in Russia, then it was not wise to industrialize and modernize Russia. Industrialization in Russia was inevitable, and it was only a matter of time before the working proletariate class would over throw the tsar. Lenin wanted to achieve Marx’s communist utopia, and his ideas were much more radical compared to the socialists in Western Europe.

5. Why was science dominant in the second half of the nineteenth century? How did the scientific outlook change between 1850 and 1914?

Science and technology in the Second Industrial Revolution made the public more aware of science than ever before. During the 19th century science became the source for all human knowledge. Many scientists like Darwin explained new ideas and theories of life. The scientific outlook greatly changed because of the Second Industrial Revolution. People were more willing than ever before to pursue engineering and science based careers. More people slowly began to look to science instead of the bible and stories to answer their questions about the universe. Philosophers like Freud began to question the literal belief of the bible.

6. How did Nietzsche and Freud challenge traditional morality?

Nietzsche and Freud challenged traditional by their philosophical ideas and writings. They both regarded instincts as part of the mind. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher. His radical ideas questioned value of individuality and morality. “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often and sometimes frightened. But no price is too hight to pay for the privilege of owning yourself” -Nietzsche. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist, who is known for as the father of psychoanalysis. He denied the existence of God and he though of religion as an interference with nature. He thought that religion enables the weak, and takes pitt on them.

Sources

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

Some of these essays are rather short for a true Mandy study guide. Feel free to add much more than simply what I wrote!

Nationalism & Imperialism

TERMS

The Crimean War- the Crimean War (1853-1856) was the reaction to Russia’s attempt to expand its sphere of influence by capturing Crimea. By gaining the Ottoman held territory, Russia would gain a warm water port allowing it to expand its trade into the Mediterranean. France and Britain felt threatened by Russia’s decision of expansion and decided to fight with the Ottomans to stop the expansion of Russia. The Crimean War was a dissident chord which ended the Concert of Europe. For the first time in European history the French and British unite to fight one common enemy.

Camillo Cavour- Camillo Cavour (1810-1861) was a leading figure during the Italian unification. Cavour was the Prime Minister of Piedmont and Sardinia.

Cavour made his fortune investing in railroads, and as the owner of a newspaper. He was a leader whose beliefs were formed by the Enlightenment, classical economics, and utilitarianism.

Giuseppe Mazzini- (1805-1872) as an Italian politician and a supporter of the Italian unification. During the 1830s and 1840s Mazzini and his fellow republican, Giuseppe Garibaldi, led uprisings to try to unite Italy. Both were part of the Roman Republic of 1849.

Giuseppe Garibaldi- (1807-1882) was an Italian politician who sought to unite Italy. His military campaigns unified a large portion of Italy. Garibaldi wanted to to establish an Italian republic, but Cavour kept him from doing so by sending Piedmontese troops into southern Italy.

Transformismo before Italian unification in 1870, Italian parliamentary leaders would use bribes to “transform” enemies into friends. This act of bribery became known as trasformismo. Italian politics became a known for corruption.

Frederick William IV- (1795-1861) was the King of Prussia from 1840-1861. Liberal nationalists had almost given up after the suppression of the revolts of 1848 and 1849. Frederick William IV wanted to lead a unification movement, but Austria opposed it as it would weaken its sphere of influence in Prussia.

Otto von Bismarck- (1815-1898) was a conservative Prussian who became the first Chancellor of Germany in 1871. Bismarck more than any other person helped shape the course of Europe’s history for the next thirty years.

Danish war- The Danish war only lasted a few months in 1864. Bismarck’s strategy was to provoke and win a war with Austria. A disagreement in foreign relations between Denmark and the German Confederation gave him his opportunity. During this war, Bismarck had gained Russia’s friendship and he also made Napoleon III remain neutral until the Austro-Prussian War of 1866.

Austro-Prussian War- The Austro-Prussian War of 1866 was a war between Austria and Prussia. On June 1, 1866, when Austria asked the German Confederation to intervene, Bismarck claimed this violated Prussia’s treaties with Austria.  The war ended with Austria surrendering Venetia to Italy, and it also weakened the Habsburg.

Franco-Prussian War- In 1868, the Spanish removed queen Isabella II from the throne and replaced her with Prince Leopold Hohenzollern. The French became worried that the Hohenzollerns were surrounding the territories of France. Bismarck started the war by sending an “edited” version of a telegram that William I wanted him to deliver to Napoleon III. This edited telegram made France declare war on Prussia.  This war ended with the German states becoming a powerful nation in Europe.

Napoleon III- Napoleon the III (1808-1873) was the leader of France from 1851-1870. Napoleon III’s rule was divided into two halves one being an authoritarian ruler to the second half becoming more liberal.

Paris Commune- the Paris Commune was a revolutionary government that ruled in Paris from March to May 1871. The short lived Paris Commune became famous. Marxists claimed it was a genuine proletarian government suppressed by the bourgeoisie even though it the goal of the commune was not to create a republic but a nation of relatively independent democratic states. Although the Paris Commune did not succeed at its goal it  showed that centralized national government was a better form of government over an alternative form of political organization.

Third Republic- The Third Republic of France was a type of government in that lasted in France from 1870 to 1940. In France the Third republic proved to be more durable that many had expected.

Dual Monarchy- was an agreement between Austria and Hungary that two monarchs would rule the Habsburg lands. The Dual Monarchy weakened the Habsburg territory even more.

Alexander II- Alexander II (1818-1881) was the Emperor of Russia from 1855-1881. Alexander II was one of the greatest reformers of Russia since Tsar Peter the Great. He reconstructed Russia’s political and military institutions.

Populism- populism is a political theory that appeals to the interests and needs of the general people. In the late 19th century in Russia, students formed a revolutionary movement known as populism.

The People’s Will- was a group of revolutionaries in Russia that sought to over through the monarchy. Its members decide to assassinate the tsar himself,  Alexander II. On March 1, 1881, members of the People’s Will assassinated Alexander II by throwing a bomb at him.

Alexander III- Alexander III (1845-1894) was the tsar of Russia from 1881-1894. He was conservative and turned back most of his father’s reforms. He strengthened the secret police and increased censorship of the press.

Second Reform Act 1867- the Second Reform act increased the size of the electorate by giving the working class more voting rights. The British realized that the only way they would win over the loyalty of the working class would be to give them the right to vote. The Second Reform Act of 1867 increased the number of voters in Britain from 1,430,000 to 2,470,000.

Gladstone- William Ewart Gladstone (1809-1898) was a liberal politician in Britain in the late 19th century. Gladstone helped pass the Education Act of 1870 which gave all people of Britain the right to free elementary schools. The Education Act of 1870 made sure the electorate was made up of literate voters.

Disraeli- Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) was a conservative politician in Britain in the late 19th century. Disraeli succeeded Gladstone in 1874. Disraeli helped pass the Public Health Act of 1875 which gave inexpensive health care to Britain.

The Irish Question- the Irish question had become a major issue of the 1880s while Gladstone was the prime minister of Britain. The Irish question was a debate wether Ireland should become a separate state from England.

QUESTIONS

1. Why did the Ottoman Empire attempt to reform itself between 1839 and 1914?  How successful were these efforts?

The Ottoman Empire attempted to reform itself because it saw how much more advanced the rest of Europe was compared to itself. The sultan tried to reconstruct the Ottoman government and military along European borders. The reforms attempted between 1839 and 1876 were known as the Tanzimat. These new reforms freed the economy, ended high taxes on the population, fought corruption, and extended religious tolerance throughout the Ottoman Empire. In 1856, another reform gave Jews and Christians the same rights. The Tanzimat also abolished tourture and gave more rights to foreigners and Christian missionaries. Although these liberal ideas were beneficial for the Ottoman Empire, they were difficult to implement. The success of these reforms are difficult to judge because they were more helpful in some regions compared to others. For some citizens of the Ottoman Empire these reforms seemed too radical and this led to outraged traditional Islamists. Reforms such as the Tanzimat were difficult to enact.

2. Why was it so difficult to unify Italy? What groups wanted unification? Why did Cavour succeed? What did Garibaldi contribute to Italian unification?

From 1830 to 1870 debates over national identity, unification, and independence from the Austrian Empire lingered throughout Italy. A majority of the population living on the Italian Peninsula wanted independence from the Austrians. Although a many agreed that the northern provinces of Lombardy and Venetia should be released from Austrian rule, disputes regarding the unification of Italy, and what type of government that should be established were not as clear. During this time period, the conservatives, the church, the republican nationalists, and the those who wanted Italy to remain divided, all had different views pertaining national identity, and unification of Italy. All of these opposing views made it difficult to unify Italy. Groups such as the followers of Camilio Cavour, Giuseppe Mazzini, and Giuseppe Garibaldi were all supporters of Italian unification. Cavour succeeded in unifying Italy because he promoted free trade, railway construction, modernization of agriculture and he also tried to win the support of the Italian nationalists. Garibaldi’s contribution to the unification of Italy was his militaristic approach. He forcefully united some parts of Italy.

3. How and why did Bismarck unify Germany? Why had earlier attempts failed? How did German unification affect the rest of Europe?

Bismarck unified Germany by opposing parliamentary government but favored a strong constitutional monarchy. When Bismarck became prime minister in 1862, he attacked the liberals in Prussia. He ignored the liberals so that he could unify Germany. Earlier attempts at unifying Germany had failed because the different political groups could not agree on how to try to unify the country. German unification changed Europe by creating a powerful new state that was stronger that Prussia was alone. The unification of Germany also weakened the power of the Habsburgs even more. After the the unification of Germany, conservative political ideas now controlled one of Europe’s stronges nations.

4. What events led to the establishment of the Third Republic? How were foreign and domestic policies intertwined during the Second Empire? What were the objectives of the Paris Commune?? How did the Dreyfus affair affect the Third Republic? 

The Third Republic was established after France had lost the Franco-Prussian War. The people of France had lost their confidence with the emperor. Politicians in France seized the moment and hoped to create a more democratic state without a autocratic monarch. The goals of the Third Republic and the Second Empire were similar.  The objectives of the Paris commune were to separate the church and state, limit working hours, and granting of pensions to government worker and their families. These objectives of the Paris commune were seen as extreme liberalism to conservatives at the time in France. The most difficult time the Third Republic experienced was the Dreyfus affair. On December 22, 1894, the French military found Captain Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935) guilty of treason. Dreyfus had been caught passing sensitive information to the German army. As a punishment, he was sent to Devil’s island. Later in 1896, information about Dreyfus’s treason came to light, and it was found the accusations against him had been forged. The Dreyfus case had long lasting political repercussions. It separated supporters and non-supporters in the Third Republic apart, which led to heightened political tensions. Repressions from the Dreyfus affair continued to divide the Third Republic roughly until the German invasion of France in 1940.

5. What problems did Austria share with other eastern European empires? Were they solved? Why did the Habsburgs agree to the Compromise of 1867? Was it a success?

One of the largest problems that faced eastern European empires in the 19th century was the ethnically diverse land they ruled. This put higher strain on the nations leaders and people. In Austria, the numerous ethic groups with in the Habsburg Empire confronted it with a unique challenge as it attempted to modernize its state. There were over 11 different ethnic groups with distinct languages that were part of the Austrian Empire. Many of these problems of ethnicity went unsolved, because it was undesirable for people to give up their unique customs to try to become a single nation of a homogenous culture and language. The Habsburgs agreed to the Compromise of 1867 because they wanted to become a stronger nation state. They agreed to combine the Austrian Habsburg lands with the Hungarian lands to create a single dual monarchy. The dual monarchy was cumbersome politically for Austria and Hungary. The dual monarchy was unique in European history.

6. What reforms did Alexander II institute in Russia? Did they solve Russia’s domestic problems? Why did the abolition of serfdom not satisfy the peasants?

The political reforms of Alexander II were both necessary to the tsar to retain power in Russia. The most significant difference between Russia and the rest of Europe in the 19th century was that Russia had still not abolished serfdom. The only western minded countries that still tolerated involuntary serivitude in the mid 19th century were Russia, areas of the United States, and Brazil. All of the other nations in Europe had already abolished serfdom 100-75 years earlier to Russia.  After the Crimean War, Alexander II made the decision to abolish serfdom. He stated that serfdom hindered Russia economically, and was a constant source of social unrest. Alexander II also reformed the government and judicial system in Russia. Among with other reforms Alexander II also reformed the military of Russia. The embarrassing defeat of the Crimean war prompted Alexander II to reform the military. Alexander II shortened the service time of peasants from 25 years of active duty to a significantly shorter 15 years. The abolition of serfdom did not satisfy the peasants because once they were freed they could not afford to own the land they had once worked on. As a result of the abolition of serfdom, Russia experienced famine due to the lower production rate of food.

7. How did the policies of the British Liberal and Conservative parties differ between 1860 and 1890? Why was home rule such a divisive issue in British politics?

There were noticeable differences between the British Liberal and Conservative parties during 1860 and 1890. The liberal Party favored social reform, reducing powers of the Church of England, and expanding the voting electorate. Gladstone sought for individualism, free trade, and wanted to solve social problems that plagued the poor proletariate working classes. The conservatives favored paternalistic legislation and government that would protect the weak. Disraeli was more conservative compared to Gladstone. Disraeli favored legislation that supported the Public Health Act of 1875. This act provided discounted health care for all citizens of England. The Irish nationalists wanted so called “home rule” which would allow the Irish to govern their own local government separate of the British. The debate over Irish home rule was a divisive issue in British politics because if Ireland was awarded the right to control its local government this would weaken Britain’s influence on Ireland. Many politicians were separated on the idea if Ireland should be given the power to control its own local government.

Sources

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

Hey please don’t just copy this… at least type it out. Have fun with Mandy!