Klemens von Metternich- Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) was an an Austrian politician and statesman. He organized the Congress of Vienna from 1814-1815 which established peace in Europe for one hundred years.
Daniel O’Connell- (1775-1847) was an Irish political leader and reformer during the 19th century. He fought for the right for Catholics to sit in on the Westminster Parliament.
Six Acts- the Six Acts were conservative documents the British government created in order to prevent radical ideas from spreading. The Six Acts did not allow large unauthorized public meetings, raised the fines for holding large meetings, speeded up the trials of criminals, increased newspaper taxes, prohibited the training of armed groups, and allowed local officials to search homes in certain counties.
The Charter- was Louis XVIII’s constitution of France. It combined the monarchy and representative government. The Charter made Roman Catholicism the official religion of France, but also allowed for religious toleration.
Louis Philippe- Louis Philippe (1773-1850) was King of the French. Louis Philippe was sworn in as King Louis Philippe I on August 9, 1830. He adopted the title King of the French, a decision which linked the monarchy to the people, instead of the monarchy to the land, as Charles X did.
Congress System- the Congress system was a series of meetings in Europe between the major powers which promoted mutual cooperation and consultation. The first meeting of the Congress System convened at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818 between Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia.
Decembrist Revolt- the Decembrist Revolt was an unsuccessful revolution in 1825 which tried to create a constitution for Russia. The Decembrist Revolt was caused by a number of different reasons. After war with France, many of the soldiers in the Russian army saw how differently rural parts of Europe lived compared to the serfs in Russia. Also in 1825 Tsar Alexander I unexpectedly died. On December 26, 1825 when the army was to take its oath of allegiance to its new tsar, Nicholas I, the Moscow regiment, called for a constitution. Nicholas responded by firing upon the dissidents killing sixty of them.
Simon Bolivar- Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader. In 1810, Simon Bolivar helped organize a republican assembly in Caracas, Venezuela. In 1821, Simon Bolivar became president of Caracas. Simon Bolivar played a large role in Latin America’s independence from Spain.
“Eastern Question”- during the 19th century, the Ottoman Empire was on the decline. This raised the question in Europe known as the “Eastern Question”. What should European powers do in response of Ottoman instability and weakness in the Eastern Mediterranean?
liberalism- liberalism during the 19th century can be defined as almost any thought or idea that challenged conservative political, social, or religious values.
Quadruple Alliance- the Quadruple Alliance was a coalition between the rulers of Russia, Austria, and Prussia that was signed in November of 1815. Its purpose was to bring harmony to Europe. The leaders of these countries knew that war not only affected armies but also was a detriment to the civilian population as well. These rulers wanted to prevent war from raging in Europe.
“Official Nationality”- was a program enacted in Russia by Nicholas I in 1833. The slogan of the Official Nationality program was “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism”. Правосла́вие, самодержа́вие, наро́дность. Orthodoxy was the official religion of Russia. Autocracy meant the unrestrained power of the tsar. Nationalism meant the glorification of Russian language, culture, and customs.
“Peterloo Massacre”- On August 16, 1819, at Saint Peter’s Fields in Manchester an organized mass meeting demanded the reform of the Parliament. As the speeches of the meeting were about to begin, the Royal troops were ordered to disperse the crowd. As a result eleven people were killed and many injured.
1. What difficulties did conservatives in Austria, Prussia, and Russia face in the years after the Napoleonic wars? How did they respond on both national and international levels?
Many conservatives feared the widespread liberalistic and nationalistic thought as a result of the French Revolution and Napoleonic wars. There is an old European adage that if France begins to cough, then the rest of Europe will catch a cold. The rulers of Europe faced the challenging task of restoring stability and alliances between the nations of Europe while at the same time making sure liberalistic or nationalistic revolutions did not reappear in their territory. Conservatives in Austria and Prussia faced the largest problem with dealing with liberalism and nationalism. The conservative monarchies of the two countries could deal with liberalism and nationalism to an extent, but the two ideas still were a threat to their ideology. The Congress of Vienna replaced the Holy Roman Empire with the German Confederation under Austrian leadership. Russia became an even more powerful European nation as a result of the Napoleonic Wars. With the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825, political stability in Russia suffered. As a result of Alexander’s death, his younger brother Nicholas I stepped up to the throne. Constantine the older of Alexander’s two brothers declined the opportunity to the Russian throne. In the midst of the confusion, a group of military officers organized a revolt in favor of Alexander’s older brother Constantine to be Tsar, who was in favor of a constitutional monarchy. This was called the Decembrist Revolt. It was quickly put down by Nicholas I, who later ruled Russia with a tight grip. Nicholas I created programs to promote conservative nationalism like the “Official Nationality” program.
2. What were the aims of the Concert of Europe? What did it accomplish and why did Britain withdraw?
The main goals of the Concert of Europe were to establish long lasting peace through conservative rule. Austria, Prussia, Russia and Great Britain decided at the Congress of Vienna that no single nation should be allowed to rule all of Europe. The countries decided to resolve international disputes with diplomacy instead of war. The rulers of these countries also created the Quadruple Alliance, which was a coalition of countries that had agreed to prevent another nightmarish situation like the one cause by Napoleon. The goals of the Concert of Europe were to uphold the agreements made at the Congress of Vienna. It also made sure to avoid another dictator like Napoleon from gaining power. The countries decided to maintain a balance of power because they agreed no single country should rule Europe. The Concert of Europe successfully gave Greece its independence from Ottoman rule. Britain withdrew from the Concert of Europe for several reasons. After 1815, Britain experienced poor harvests. At the same time unemployment rates soared due to a decreasing size of the military. “With budget cuts, troop levels were cut from 233,592 men in 1815 to 102,529 men by 1828. There were further reductions in 1838, after which troop number stood at 91,388” (Chandler 164). After the Napoleonic Wars, Europe was at peace for over forty years which led to the neglect of the military which led to unemployment of many. Britain withdrew from the Concert of Europe due to its own domestic problems.
3. What were the tenets of liberalism? Who were the liberals and how did liberalism affect the political developments of the early 19th century? What relationship does liberalism have to nationalism?
The main tenets of liberalism in Europe were the ideas of limited government and liberty of individuals. They believed in free speech, freedom of religion, press, assembly, and laissez faire. Adam Smith was a liberal who published his most important work, The Wealth of Nations. The Wealth of Nations reinforced the idea of laissez faire policy, and let individual businesses set their own prices and production levels. This idea of laissez faire made some governments adopt the idea. Liberalism and nationalism during the 19th century were two different political thoughts. Liberalists believed in less conservative rule, and nationalists believed that people in their country were united by a common culture, language, and history. Many liberalists were also nationalists like Otto von Bismarck.
4. Describe the constitution of the restored monarchy in France. Was the government truly constitutional? What did Charles X hope to accomplish? How much support did he have?
The constitution of the restored monarchy gave the monarchy some limits. The new constitution of France was called the Charter. The Charter promised most of the rights the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen had spoken about. The Charter allowed religious toleration but Catholicism was made the official language of France. The government was not truly constitutional because the king elected all of the the members of the upper house, and the Chamber of Peers. Charles X’s goal was to try to restore France as much as he could to a true conservative monarchy. Charles X was a firm believer in rule by divine right. To support the Catholic Church, Charles X made a law that punished sacrilege with imprisonment or death. Charles X did not have the support of the liberals by any means. The reaction of his policies was the revolution of 1830.
5. What were the causes of the revolution of 1830? What did the new revolution achieve, and at what cost?
The cause of the revolution of 1830 was the reaction to Charles X extreme conservatism. Charles X made a law that punished sacrilege with imprisonment or death. He also began measures of restoring the land to aristocrats who had lost it during the rule of Napoleon. People began accusing Charles of violating the terms of the Charter. The revolution of 1830 ended the rule of Charles X and the house of Bourbon’s rein. The new leader was Louis Philippe. Louis Philippe (1773-1850) was King of the French. Louis Philippe was sworn in as King Louis Philippe I on August 9, 1830. He adopted the title King of the French, a decision which linked the monarchy to the people, instead of the monarchy to the land, as Charles X did. Louis Philippe created a conceptional monarchy.
6. Before 1820, Britain appeared to be moving down the same reactionary road as other major powers. What factors led to a different outcome in Britain? How did the “liberal” Tories hope to limit revolutionary sentiment? Why did the Tory government fail?
A revolution did not occur in Britain because of the government’s ability to suppress the masses with marginal compromise. Several factors contributed to compromise in Britain. The commercial and industrial class was larger in Britain compared to other European countries. The British government knew this and they had to compromise with their interests in mind or else hurt the British economy. The Great Reform Bill passed in 1832, laid the path for further orderly reforms with in the British constitution. The Great Reform Bill increased the number of voters in Britain by 200,000 people. The Tories limited revolutionary sentiment by compromising with the people enough to stop a revolution.
7. What was the purpose of the Great Reform Bill? What did it achieve? Would you call it a “revolutionary” document?
The purpose of the Great Reform Bill was to change legislative system in England. It wanted to give large industrial cities, like Manchester, a voice in parliament. The Great Reform Bill gave large industrial cities like Manchester a voice in parliament. It also got rid of small towns with wealthy land owners a voice in parliament also called “rotten boroughs”. The bill increased the amount of voters in Britain by fifty percent. The Great Reform Bill was extraordinary but not quite revolutionary. It gave only male land owners the right to vote. Women still did not have a voice in politics what so ever in Britain. The Great Reform Bill did get rid of many towns with small populations with had wealthy landowners a voice in government but it still did not address all of the problems in the electoral system. Several rotten boroughs still existed even after the Great Reform Bill. Bribery still plagued the electoral system even after the bill.
8. Discuss two of the following pieces of legislation: Carlsbad Decrees: Catholic Emancipation Act; Great Reform Bill: Organic Statue. What were their purposes, what did they achieve and why were they significant for the history of the period?
The purpose of the Great Reform Bill was to change legislative system in England. It wanted to give large industrial cities, like Manchester, a voice in parliament. The Great Reform Bill gave large industrial cities like Manchester a voice in parliament. It also got rid of small towns with wealthy land owners a voice in parliament also called “rotten boroughs”. The bill increased the amount of voters in Britain by fifty percent. The Organic Statue of the Kingdom of Poland replaced the previous constitution of 1815. The Great Reform Bill was significant because it put Britain one step closer to a democracy. The Organic Statue signed by Nicholas I of Russia, officially made parts of Poland including Warsaw part of Russia. The statute merged the Polish and Russian military together. The Polish Parliament (Sejm) was also disbanded. The purpose of the Organic Statute was to officially merge Poland and Russia together. The statue was a significant because it was another moment in time and in history that Russia merged with another country.
Chandler, David G., and I. F. W. Beckett. “P.164, Para 2.” The Oxford History of the British Army. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. N. pag. Print.