Imperialism- Policy of expanding a nation’s power by seeking hegemony over alien peoples.
The Jewel in the Crown- India was “the jewel in the crown” of the British Empire, its most profitable and valuable possession.
Sepoy Rebellion 1857- the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857 was a mutiny of Indian soldiers against the East India Company’s army on May 10, 1857. The rebellion was brutally suppressed. The British had a significant advantage because of their superior weaponry.
Spheres of Influence- A sphere of Influence is an economic and politically controlled area of one nation.
J.A. Hobson- John Atkinson Hobson (1858-1940) was an English economist and writer. Hobson was known as a critic of imperialism.
‘civilizing mission’- The ‘civilizing mission’ was the belief that it was Europeans’ duty to civilize indigenous Africans. European confidence in their superiority made them energetic, self righteous, expansionists.
“Scramble for Africa”- The scramble for Africa was as a result of New Imperialism. Before 1880, European presence in Africa was largely the result of coastal exploration by early explorers who did not penetrate inland. By 1914 however, the occupying powers included most large European countries.
Suez Canal- The Suez Canal was finished in 1869. It stimulated British interest in Africa because the canal shortened the distance by ship between Africa and India.
King Leopold II- King Leopold II (1835-1909) was the king of Belgium and is primarily remembered for founding the Congo Free State.
Great Trek/Boers- The Great Trek was a north eastward emigration of the Dutch Boers as a result of the British rule in South Africa.
Apartheid- was a system of racial segregation in South Africa.
The Boxer Rebellion- The Boxer Rebellion was an anti Imperialist movement in China from 1899-1901.
“Tools” of imperialism- European nations used many methods of expanding their spheres of influence during the age of Imperialism. Europe’s power was bassoon the progress it made during the second industrial revolution in science, technology, industry, agriculture, communications, and weaponry. The earlier for of imperialism involved seizing land and resettling it with the conquerer;s people or controlling trade to exploit the resources of a dominated area. The New Imperialism employed this method and introduced new ones as well. A European nation often began by investing capital in a foreign region to develop its mines and agriculture, railroads, and harbors.
1. How did European imperial interests shift geographically in the nineteenth century? How was free trade related to the expansion of European influence around the globe?
European imperial interests shifted geographically as a result of economic and political motives. European nations shifted away from colonialism towards imperialism because they saw the economic benefits associated with imperialism. A need for martkts and raw materials does not adequately explain the New Imperialism of the late 19th century. Some politicians hoped that imperialism would steer public interest from domestic problems. Some social reformers hoped to use colonies to relieve population pressures in Europe (Australia).
2. How was New Imperialism different from free-trade imperialism? Why was Britain the dominant world power until the late 19th century?
New Imperialism was different from free trade imperialism in many ways. Firstly free trade imperialism means that a country conquerer and rules over other reigns. Imperialism means creating an empire, and expanding onto the neighboring regions. Britain was the dominant power because of its large sphere of influence. Britain was able to achieve its large sphere of influence as a result of its large, powerful, and technologically advanced navy.
3. What were the Opium Wars?
The Opium Wars was a war fought between China and Britain over conflicting viewpoints over the sale of opium. Britain wanted access to China’s raw materials and in return would sell the Chinese opium. The Chinese government disapproved over this and thus created a war.
4. Describe British rule in India from 1857 to WWI? Why was India so important to Britain?
Britain wanted India because of its natural resources. India also provided Britain a central economic and military base for all relations in Asia. India was a huge economic investment. The British spent lots of money and time to conquer India. As a result the British controlled a large wealthy area of land with many natural resources.
There is supposed to be a chart here…..
5. Why did missionary efforts expand in the nineteenth century? Why was the relationship between Western missionaries and colonial officials so complicated? Why did Africans want to found their own churches? How has the spread of Christianity in the non-Western world affected the Christian churches?
Missionaries wanted to expand in the 19th century because they believed they had a duty to extend the benefits of their superior civilization to less technologically advanced people. Africans wanted to found their own churches because they felt discriminated by Europeans who lived in Africa. The spread of Christianity affected many other religions. The spread of Christianity in the non-Western world also helped Christian churches.
6. How did Westerners justify imperialism? What was the civilizing mission? What sciences were most associated with the New Imperialism? What role did racism play in the New Imperialism?
Westerners justified imperialism because they believed they had a duty to extend the benefits of their superior civilization to less technologically advanced people. The ‘civilizing mission’ was the belief that it was Europeans’ duty to civilize indigenous Africans. European confidence in their superiority made them energetic, self righteous, expansionists. Racism played a role in New Imperialism. It made some Caucasian Europeans feel superior to Africans.
yeah this is a really short study guide…. didn’t get a 20/20. You definitely need to add to it in order to get 20. Good Luck!