Late 19th Century Europe11 minutes read

TERMS

Second Industrial Revolution- the Second Industrial Revolution, began after 1850,

expanded production of steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil. The development of electrically powered machines had the greats impact of industry on daily life.

petite bourgeoisie- is a French term that describes the white collar social class. The petite bourgeoisie compromised of professions such as shopkeepers, small merchants, school teachers, and librarians. Many of these people had working class origins. All had middle class aspirations.

Napoleon III’s Paris- Napoleon III rebuilt and redesigned Paris. Napoleon III initiated the redesign of Paris and appointed Georges Haussmann from 1853 to 1870 to oversee the city’s reconstruction. Napoleon III created large boulevards and wide streets. This allowed for for quick deployment of troops, and also eliminated narrow streets that people might barricade. During the reconstruction of Paris, sewers were also added to reduce disease.

The Eiffel Tower- the Eiffel Tower was initially built as an entrance arch for the World’s Fair of 1889. It became a symbol of French industrial strength. Many people in Paris wanted to tear it down, but it was later repurposed as a radio tower.

Louis Pasteur- Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was a French chemist known for his discoveries in vaccination, fermentation, and pasteurization. His breakthroughs raised public awareness on sanitation and cleanliness.

Joseph Lister- Joseph Lister (1827-1912) was a British surgeon who pioneered in antiseptic surgery. By applying the methods of Louis Pasteur to surgery, Joseph Lister was able to make surgery much safer for patients.

Married Woman’s Property Act of 1882- The Married Woman’s Property Act of 1882 allowed wives in Britain to own property as individuals. European society was based on private property and wage earning, laws seriously disadvantaged women.

Eduard Manet – A Bar at the Folies Bergere- Eduard Manet (1832-1883) was a French

painter who is know for is impressionistic style. His paining, A Bar at the Folies Bergere is a paining of a woman who is a bartender. The painting shows the woman from two unique angles because there is a mirror behind her. This interesting choice to use a mirror by Manet gives the painting an extra layer.

Mary Wollstonecraft – The Vindication of the Right of Woman- In 1792 Mary Wollstonecraft wrote The Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Mary Wollstonecraft made a case for women’s rights based on the same arguments used for mens rights in the 18th century.

suffragettes- suffragettes was a demeaning name for members of the Women’s Social and Political Union. This group of women lobbied for votes and increased rights for women in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

Trade Unionism- is an organization of workers in the same field who come together to achieve common goals. Trade unionism flourished during the second half of the century as governments began to recognize the right of workers to organize. All the major industrial countries in Europe allowed Trade Unionism by the late 19th century.

Karl Marx & the First International- In 1864, a group of British and French trade unionists founded the First International. This group encompassed a vast array of radical political types.

Fabian Socialism- Britain’s most influential socialist organization was the Fabian Society. It took its name from the Roman general Fambius Maximus, who was famous for defending Rome from Hannibal in the Second Punic War. Fabian Socialism believed that collective ownership could could solve the problems of industry.

German Social Democratic Party- The German Social Democratic Party also called the SPD emerged in 1875 in response to the inequality of the German working class. The SPD remained a influential group throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The SPD started out as a small political group but then grew into one of Germany’s largest political parties.

Ferdinand Lasalle & Wilhelm Liebknecht- Ferdinand Lasalle (1825-1864) was an activist for labor reform who wanted to win a role for the working class in German politics. The SPD was formed in response to his work. Wilhelm Liebkecht (1826-1900) was a German social democrate who helped organize the SPD.

The Erfurt Program- was formulated in 1891 by the SPD. It’s goal was to create a socialist means of production. It also declared the imminent death of capitalism

Revisionism and Eduard Bernstein- Eduard Bernstein (1850-1932) was a German

political theorist and a member of the SPD. Bernstein saw flaws in Marxist thinking and rejected significant parts of Marxist theory. German socialists condemned Bernstein’s views, but the SPD followed Bernstein’s views. Trade unions were prospering and did not want a revolution. The SPD grew in popularity by compromising with different views and soon became one of the most important political organizations in Germany.

Bolsheviks & Mensheviks- Bolsheviks, meaning majority in Russian, was Lenin’s Russian political party which favored elite professionals who would provide the working class with centralized leadership. The Mensheviks, meaning minority in Russian, wanted to create a party with large mass membership, like the SPD in Germany.

Vladimir Lenin- Vladimir Llyich Ulyanov (1870-1924) was a Russian socialist revolutionary, and politician. He was head of the government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 until 1922, and the Soviet Union from 1922 until his death in 1924. Lenin was born to a wealthy family in Simbirsk, Russia.

Revolution of 1905; Bloody Sunday- On January 22, 1905, the tsar’s troops fired onto a crowd of workers in Saint Petersburg who were peacefully protesting for improved working conditions. The incident marked the point at which many Russians decided they could no longer trust the tsar. In October of 1905, strikes broke out in Saint Petersburg, and groups of workers called soviets took control of the city. Nicholas tried to calm the situation down by issuing the October Manifesto, which was a pledge to institute a constitutional government.

Charles Darwin/Social Darwinism- Charles Darwin (1809-1882) was an English naturalist and geologist. In 1859, Darwin published The Origin of Species. It explained a species’ traits are as a result of its past struggles with the environment, not given from a god. A British philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) turned the theory of evolution into a basis for a theory of ethics. Spencer’s argument of Social Darwinism justified the neglect of the poor and the working class, exploitation Native Americans, and the aggressive competition amongst nations.

Kulturkampf- Kulturkampf, cultural struggle in German, was an extreme church versus state conflict waged by Bismarck in Germany during the 1870s.

Rerum Novarum- Rerum Novarum was a papal issued document in 1891, that defended private property, religious education, and religious control of marriage laws. Rerum Novarum also condemned socialism and Marxism.

Impressionism- is a late 19th century art movement that began with a group of painters in

France. Impressionist paintings usually have small, but visible brush strokes.

Friedrich Nietzsche- Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher. His radical ideas questioned value of individuality and morality. “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often and sometimes frightened. But no price is too hight to pay for the privilege of owning yourself” -Nietzsche.

Sigmund Freud- Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist, who is known for as the father of psychoanalysis. He denied the existence of God and he though of religion as an interference with nature. He thought that religion enables the weak, and takes pitt on them.

QUESTIONS

1. How was European society transformed by the Second Industrial Revolution? What new industries developed , and which do you think had the greatest impact in the twentieth century? How do you account for European economic difficulties in the second half of the nineteenth century?

European society was transformed in many ways by the Second Industrial Revolution. Industry became even more widespread in Europe. The Bessemer process allowed for stronger, cheaper steel which also led to increased growth. Automobile and electrical machines also were beginning to be developed at this time. The development of electrically powered machines had the greats impact of industry on daily life. Electricity could be used in a variety of different ways and helped industry become more complex. All of these advancements in technology, led to a better standard of living in Europe. While Industry and and agriculture bombed from 1850 to 1870, the end of the century’s economies slowed down. Poor weather and foreign competition created rubles for European farmers. Many workers still lived in difficult conditions. Several large banks in Europe failed in 1873, and the rate of investments slowed which caused some industries to stagnate. However at the very end of the 19th century, consumer demand began to revive the economy.

2. What was the status of women in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century? Why did they grow discontented with their lot? What factors led to change? To what extent had they improved their position by 1914?

In the second half of the 19th century women’s social roles began to change. Women during the 19th century, no matter what their class, were economically deprived and were dependent on their husbands, or family. Mostly all European women could not own property, and did not have the same rights to education, and voting, as men did. Since society at the time in Europe was based on property and wage earning, laws seriously disadvantaged women. Many factors led to change such as new employment opportunities for women. The expansion of the government, and large scale business organizations, like retail stores, gave women more opportunities for work and employment. By 1914, women had improved their position on topics like voting rights and gender equality, but it wasn’t until after World War I, when countries realized the contributions made by women in the War and decided to give them certain rights such as voting.

3. What was the status of the proletariat by 1860? Had it improved by 1914? What caused the growth in trade unions and organized mass political parties? Why were the debates over “opportunism? And “revisionism” important to the western European socialist parties?

The status of the proletariat had changed greatly from 1860 to 1914. In 1860 the proletariat was being exploited by the wealthier classes for their cheap labor. Marx and other socialist philosophers saw this and decided that the proletariate class should come together in order to be stronger. Trade unionism flourished during the second half of the century as governments began to recognize the right of workers to organize. All the major industrial countries in Europe allowed Trade Unionism by the late 19th century. There were debates over opportunism and revisionism because people could not agree on socialistic ideas. Bernstein saw flaws in Marxist thinking and rejected significant parts of Marxist theory. Revisionism was important to because it was in between Marxist ideas and more conservative ideas. German socialists condemned Bernstein’s views, but the SPD followed Bernstein’s views. Trade unions were prospering and did not want a revolution.

4. What were the benefits and drawbacks of industrialization for Russia? Were the tsars wise to attempt to modernize their country, or should they have left it as it was? How did Lenin’s view of socialism differ from that of the socialists in Western Europe?

The benefit of industrialization for Russia was that it gave it strengthened the country as a whole. On the other hand, industrialization weakened the tsar’s power. If it was the tsar’s main goal to hold onto power in Russia, then it was not wise to industrialize and modernize Russia. Industrialization in Russia was inevitable, and it was only a matter of time before the working proletariate class would over throw the tsar. Lenin wanted to achieve Marx’s communist utopia, and his ideas were much more radical compared to the socialists in Western Europe.

5. Why was science dominant in the second half of the nineteenth century? How did the scientific outlook change between 1850 and 1914?

Science and technology in the Second Industrial Revolution made the public more aware of science than ever before. During the 19th century science became the source for all human knowledge. Many scientists like Darwin explained new ideas and theories of life. The scientific outlook greatly changed because of the Second Industrial Revolution. People were more willing than ever before to pursue engineering and science based careers. More people slowly began to look to science instead of the bible and stories to answer their questions about the universe. Philosophers like Freud began to question the literal belief of the bible.

6. How did Nietzsche and Freud challenge traditional morality?

Nietzsche and Freud challenged traditional by their philosophical ideas and writings. They both regarded instincts as part of the mind. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) was a German philosopher. His radical ideas questioned value of individuality and morality. “The individual has always had to struggle to keep from being overwhelmed by the tribe. If you try it, you will be lonely often and sometimes frightened. But no price is too hight to pay for the privilege of owning yourself” -Nietzsche. Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) was an Austrian neurologist, who is known for as the father of psychoanalysis. He denied the existence of God and he though of religion as an interference with nature. He thought that religion enables the weak, and takes pitt on them.

Sources

Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.

Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.

Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.

 

Some of these essays are rather short for a true Mandy study guide. Feel free to add much more than simply what I wrote!

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