Dual Alliance 1879 Germany & Austria- the dual alliance was a defensive alliance between Germany and Austria. The agreement was that both nations agreed to help one another in case of an attack by Russia.
Triple Alliance 1882 Italy, Germany, Austria- the Triple Alliance of 1882 lasted until WWI in 1914. It was a military alliance among Germany, Austria, and Italy.
Kaiser William II- Kaiser William II (1859-1941) was the ruler of Germany from 1888 to 1918.
Franco-Russian Alliance – 1890- military alliance between the French Third Republic and the Russian Empire which lasted from 1892 to 1917.
Kruger Telegram- the Kruger telegram was a message sent by Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm II to the president of the Transvaal Republic in 1896.
Entente Cordial- The Entente Cordial was a series of agreements which aligned Britain and France together before WWI
First Moroccan Crisis 1905- The First Moroccan Crisis also known as the Tangier crisis was an international crisis between 1905 and 1906 over the status of the Morocco.
Russo-British Alliance- 1907- The Russo British alliance was a military alliance between Russia and Britain in 1907.
Bosnian Crisis 1908- the Bosnian crisis was when Austria announced the annexations of Bosnia and Herzegovina territories in 1908.
Second Moroccan Crisis 1911- the Second Moroccan Crisis 1911 was internationall tension sparked by the deployment of a substantial force of French troops in the interior of the Moroccan 1911.
Balkan Wars- the Balkan Wars were a series of conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula from 1912 to 1913.
June 28, 1914/Sarajevo- was the date Archduke Franz Ferdinand was assassinated in Sarajevo.
Blank Check- was a check with no numerical value written in. It describes the war reparations Germany must pay for after the war.
Schlieffen Plan- was a tactical plan to invade France.
Battle of Tannenberg- was an engagement between Russia and Germany in the early stages of the war. The battle resulted in a large destruction of the the Russian Army.
Central Powers- the Central Powers included but were not limited to Germany, Austria, and the Ottoman Empire.
Allies- the Allies Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States.
Trench Warfare- Trench Warfare was a new type of warfare fought in the trenches.
Lusitania- the Lusitania was a ship that the Germans sank with their submarine. This led to one of the factors that got the United States involved in WWI.
Provisional Government- the Provision Government was a government that was ruled by the Duma in 1917.
October Revolution- October was a revolution in Russia that occurred in 1917.
White Russians- White Russians were the Russians who supported the rule of the king and did not support the Revolution.
Fourteen Points- The Fourteen Points was a document drafted by Woodrow Willson to help deal with the situation in Europe after WWI
Versailles- The Treaty of Versailles was the peace treaty that ended WWI.
War Guilt Clause 231- also known as Article 231, sets the blame of WWI entirely on Germany.
Reparations- were the payments from Germany to the rest of Europe to help pay for the cost and damage from the war.
Economic Consequences of the Peace – J.M. Keynes- is a book published by J.M. Keynes which describes the economic consequences after WWI and the treaty of Versailles.
1. What role in the world did Bismarck envisage for the new Germany after 1871? How successful was he in carrying out his vision? What was Bismarck’s attitude toward colonies? Was he wise to tie Germany to Austria-Hungary?
Bismarck was successful in making Germany a united power in Europe. Bismarck did not want colonies he just wanted german speakers in his lands. He was wise to tie Germany to Austria Hungary.
2. Why and in what stages did Britain abandon its policy of “splendid isolation” at the turn of the century? Were the policies it pursued instead wise ones? Or should Britain have followed a different course altogether?
Britain abandoned its policy of isolation because it eventually had to deal with problems in Europe. The policies that Britain followed were wise. Britain followed a good course during the 1910s and 1920s.
3. How did developments in the Balkans lead to the outbreak of WWI? What was the role of Serbia? Of Austria? Of Russia? What was the aim of German policy in July 1914? Did Germany want a general war?
In the Balkans nationalism helped instigate WWI. All of these nations wanted different goals for the good of their own states. Germany did not want a general war.
4. Why did Germany lose WWI? Could Germany have won, or was victory never a possibility? Assess the settlement of Versailles. What were its benefits to Europe, and what were its drawbacks? Was the settlement too harsh or too conciliatory? Could it have secured lasting peace in Europe? How might it have been improved?
Germany lost WWI because it did not have good military tactics and it got the United States involved. The Treaty of Versailles was not good for Germany. The settlement did not take in account various factors in Europe. The Treaty had the potential of creating lasting peace, but as a result it directly started WWII.
5. Why was Lenin successful in establishing Bolshevik rule in Russia? What role did Trotsky play? Was it wise policy for Lenin to take Russia out of the war?
Lenin was successful in establishing Bolshevik rule in Russia. Trotsky was a rival to Lenin. It was wise to take Russia out of the war because they were undergoing a revolution. Although they lost territory, it could be argued that they would have lost those territories anyway because the territories they lost were not technically Russian regions.
Kagan, Donald, Steven Ozment E., Frank Turner M., and A. Frankforter Daniel. The Western Heritage. Combined Volume. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2004. Print.
Kagan, Donald, Steven E. Ozment, and Frank M. Turner. The Western Heritage: Since 1300. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2007. Print.
Ramírez, Susan E., Peter N. Stearns, Samuel S. Wineburg, and Steven A. Goldberg.Holt World History: Human Legacy. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2008. Print.
Dang, those were some short essays… guess it means more work for you.